It seems to be accepted now that the molecule that causes all of the symptoms of migraine is called Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide. Discovered 30 years ago, it is produced as a consequence of alternative RNA processing of the calcitonin gene. CGRP has two major forms (α and β). It belongs to a group of peptides that all act on an unusual receptor family (from Wiki).
Furthermore from Wiki regarding the new class of drugs specifically developed to treat migraine -
"Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that act as antagonists of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. Several monoclonal antibodies which binds to the CGRP receptor or peptide have been approved for prevention of migraine".
As a chronic migraine sufferer with almost daily migraines at times I have taken a particularl issue in this new combination of drugs but as I live in the UK we are not allowed to have these drugs (at least in my area of the south-east). It is so frustrating as they still throw old fashioned preventative medications for us to take which have huge side effects and I can never tolerate them. The only one that I can stick with is Propananol which also helps with the high blood pressure I have developed. But it always feels like my brain is on a knife edge as to whether it will switch over into migraine which usually lasts a few days if I cannot knock it out with Sumatriptan and paracetemol plus caffeine.
Hope my post hasn't taken things off topic.
Maybe you have already seen this, but:
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide are involved in the underlying pathophysiology of migraine and other diseases involving neurogenic inflammation.
So I am wondering if regulating nitric oxide would help.
Also from the paper:
CGRP promoter activity was also stimulated by nitric oxide donors and overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)
And then, of course, calcium channels:
nitric oxide action required extracellular calcium and likely involves T-type calcium channels.
Nitric oxide regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide gene expression in rat trigeminal ganglia neurons