• Welcome to Phoenix Rising!

    Created in 2008, Phoenix Rising is the largest and oldest forum dedicated to furthering the understanding of, and finding treatments for, complex chronic illnesses such as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), fibromyalgia, long COVID, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), and allied diseases.

    To become a member, simply click the Register button at the top right.


  1. Hip

    COVID can infect dopamine neurons, causing neuron senescence, and potentially brain fog and depression. But 3 drugs can rescue these infected neurons

    A 2024 study found that SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect dopaminergic neurons, triggering an inflammatory and cellular senescence response. Such an infection in the brain's dopamine neurons may potentially explain long COVID symptoms such as brain fog and depression, an article about the study...
  2. SWAlexander

    Long COVID: major findings, mechanisms and recommendations

    It is a very extensive study. Abstract Long COVID is an often debilitating illness that occurs in at least 10% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. More than 200 symptoms have been identified with impacts on multiple organ systems. At least 65 million...
  3. SWAlexander

    Common viruses may be triggering the onset of Alzheimer's disease

    Shingles infection may activate dormant neurological herpes viruses, causing inflammation and accumulation of Alzheimer's associated proteins in the brain Date: August 2, 2022 Source: Tufts University Summary...
  4. SWAlexander

    Neurovascular injury with complement activation and inflammation in COVID-19

    Abstract The underlying mechanisms by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to acute and long-term neurological manifestations remains obscure. We aimed to characterize the neuropathological changes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and determine the...
  5. C

    Jarred Younger Presents: How We Can See ME/CFS Inflammation In the Brain

    Moderator note: Posts #1-7 were moved from "Where's Jarred? :)" edit: yuuge showdown coming in 2-3 months from younger when he will be able to test his first me cfs patients for B and T cells migration into the brain. Hes used years to make the experiment possible and there are possible...
  6. SNT Gatchaman

    Mapping microglia and astrocyte activation in vivo using diffusion MRI (Garcia-Hernandez et al, 2022)

    Mapping microglia and astrocyte activation in vivo using diffusion MRI Raquel Garcia-Hernandez, Antonio Cerdán Cerdá, Alejandro Trouve Carpena, Mark Drakesmith, Kristin Koller, Derek K Jones, Santiago Canals, Silvia De Santis While glia are increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of...
  7. C

    Molecular Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation in ME/CFS and Long COVID to Sustain Disease and Promote Relapses (Tate et al, 2022)

    Abstract Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease now well-documented as having arisen commonly from a viral infection, but also from other external stressors, like exposure to agricultural chemicals, other types of infection, surgery, or other severe stress...
  8. SWAlexander


    This our First Round Table Discussion on Neurology where leading experts share their experience and research findings/challenges that they face while understanding the whole picture of Long Covid. We discussed how autoantibodies. viral persistance, MAST cell activation, Gut health - all come...
  9. Shanti1

    How environmental factors may impact vagus nerve/brainstem/neuroinflammation in ME/CFS and LongCovid

    Dr. Michael VanElzakker and Dr. Amy Proal discuss vagus nerve to dorsal brainstem signaling and microglial activation (neuroinflammation). They further examine how environmental factors may impact this signaling in patients with ME/CFS and LongCovid.
  10. SWAlexander

    What? Study Finds No Neuroinflammation in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)

    Sorry if this is already posted. Conclusion A new and improved Dutch version of Nakatomi’s 2014 neuroinflammation study found no neuroinflammation at all in either ME/CFS or post-Q fever syndrome. While the study was quite small, the result is a reminder that whatever the popularity of the...
  11. daveu

    Fasting for reducing inflammation? (and hopefully neuroinflammation?)

    Hi there, My name is Dave. I currently present as about 65% on the ME Disability Scale. I recently read this excellent article about what we can do to keep our brain healthy and help reduce the onset & severity of dementia. I was interested in whether fasting can help brain health so I asked...
  12. SNT Gatchaman

    COVID-19 induces neuroinflammation and loss of hippocampal neurogenesis

    Authors: Klein et al. Published: 29th Oct 2021 (Pre-print) DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-1031824/v1 Full Text: Pre-print Abstract
  13. nerd

    Improvement Effects of Myelophil on Symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in a Reserpine-Induced Mouse Model

    Authors: Ji-Hye Song, Seul-Ki Won, Geun-Hyang Eom, Da-Som Lee, Byung-Jin Park, Jin-Seok Lee, Chang-Gue Son, Ji-Yeun Park Published on: September 22, 2021 pmid: 34638540 doi: 10.3390/ijms221910199 Abstract
  14. Sherpa

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) to deactivate mast cells

    Friends, I have been suffering from an intense mast cell activation flare due to the Moderna Covid vaccine. While researching treatments into MCAS, I came upon an blog talking about how both CBD and PEA (palmitoylethanolamide) reduce mast cell activation. It quotes: PEA reduces mast cell...
  15. Jwarrior77

    The Causes of ME/CFS, POTS, and Chronic Illness - A patients opinion

    This is my opinion on the causes of these illnesses coming from a patient who suffers from these conditions. My opinion is based on my own experience, research from the top scientists studying this, and also other patients such as Jeff Wood, Jen Brea, and others who have contributed a lot of...
  16. mitoMAN

    Anti-Neuroinflammatories: Dapansutrile (OLT1177) + Emapunil

    Dapansutrile (OLT1177) CAS Number 54863-37-5 https://www.hoelzel-biotech.com/de/dcchemicals-molecule-other-dcc-dc20225-100mg-dapansutrile-olt1177.html and Emapunil CAS Number 226954-04-7 https://www.hoelzel-biotech.com/de/medchem-express-inhibitors-other-hy-15527-5mg-emapunil.html two highly...
  17. leokitten

    Can’t or Won’t? Immunometabolic Constraints on Dopaminergic Drive. Treadway MT et al. Trends Cogn Sci. (2019)

    Interesting review of research on the impact of inflammation on the dopamine system as well as a theoretical model and computational method trying to connect it all. Could be a hypothesis as to why Abilify and dopaminergic agents have some partial efficacy in ME, even if it is temporary (so...
  18. leokitten

    Recent Developments in TSPO PET Imaging as A Biomarker of Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Disorders (2019) Werry et al

    An interesting read given the past TSPO-PET neuroinflammation studies on ME using first generation [11C]PK-11195 and now more recently second generation [11C]DPA-713, the pros/cons and limitations of these radioligands, and the development of novel third generation ligands. Recent Developments...
  19. leokitten

    An Inflammation-Centric View of Neurological Disease: Beyond the Neuron (2018) Skaper et al

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871676/ Inflammation is a complex biological response fundamental to how the body deals with injury and infection to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and effect repair. Unlike a normally beneficial acute inflammatory response, chronic...
  20. leokitten

    A systematic review of neurological impairments in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome using neuroimaging techniques

    This is a pretty well done and thorough review paper, makes for a good reference to find papers you might've read long ago on particular neuroimaging studies of ME. While most, if not all, the neuroimaging studies in ME had fairly small sample sizes (due to abysmal ME funding!) and most used...
  21. stefanosstef

    How I solved my neuroinflammation

    I am posting this because I have a strong feeling that it can help many others.For me neuroinflammation was/is the worst symptom. The manifestation is happening in many ways: Heavy feeling on head, similar to the feeling I have when I'm sick (which is very rare for the past years).A little more...
  22. Pyrrhus

    Neuroinflammation in Long Covid

    Well this is interesting... Here's a new, fascinating paper that detected inflammatory cells in the eye in Long Covid patients 2-3 months after infection. Since the optic nerve at the back of the eye is part of the nervous system, and the optic nerve is a major route for drainage of brain...
  23. Pyrrhus

    Second study might confirm neuroinflammation in ME subcortical brain

    Many of you will remember the landmark Japanese study from 2014 that used PET tracers to detect and image neuroinflammation in the brains of ME patients. Previously, no one had the technology to detect and image neuroinflammation in ME, as standard MRI's are totally unable to detect or image...
  24. C

    How to diagnose brain inflammmation?

    Hello, Do you Know what is the best Way to Check if There is some Kind of low grade / autoimmune / neuro inflammation of the brain? I Read about PET / SPECT and Liquor punction. Then There are many different ANAs to brain Tissue and cytokines What is the most *robust* test for detection of...
  25. ljimbo423

    Neuroinflammation and Cytokines in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): A Critical Review of Research Methods

    I did a search and couldn't find this posted. Very interesting view of cytokines in ME/CFS! Michael B. VanElzakker* seems to be the lead Author. Neuroinflammation and Cytokines in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): A Critical Review of Research Methods Michael B...
  26. Sarah94

    Jarred younger herbal supplements for neuroinflammation

    So I found (on health rising website) this is the list of herbs that Jarred Younger is looking at for potentially reducing neuroinflammation. Have you tried any of them and did they help? Cucurmin Luteolin Resveratol Gastodia Elata Obovotal Inflexin Pipera kadsura Ganoderma lucidum Berberine...
  27. Jackb23

    Research teams find widespread neuroinflammation in the brains of fibromyalgia patients

    PET imaging studies reveal elevated glial activation, correlation with fatigue levels The results from both centers found that glial activation in several regions of the brains of fibromyalgia patients was significantly greater than it was in control participants. Compared to the MGH team's...
  28. RustyJ

    Neuroinflammation in Patients with CFS/ME: PET study

    Source: PubMed J Nucl Med. 2014 Mar 24. [Epub ahead of print] Neuroinflammation in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: An 11C-(R)-PK11195 PET Study. Nakatomi Y1, Mizuno K, Ishii A, Wada Y, Tanaka M, Tazawa S, Onoe K, Fukuda S, Kawabe J, Takahashi K, Kataoka Y...
  29. Hip

    Completely eliminated my severe anxiety symptoms with three supplements!

    I had hellish, unrelenting generalized anxiety disorder for several years, and, having tried hundreds of supplements (as well as SSRI drugs and TCA drugs) in my frantic efforts to treat it, I recently found 3 supplements that seem to pretty much eliminate my anxiety! • The first and most potent...
  30. Hip

    Non-Standard Anti-Anxiety Treatment

    Brain Inflammation and Anxiety I am posting this in case anyone is interested in the non-standard anti-anxiety approach I used to cure my extremely high levels of anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder). This approach may well help others suffering with anxiety. This protocol may be very useful...