The role of mycotoxins and nanoparticles in CFS (why mold may have gotten worse)

debored13

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AND NOW FOR SOMETHING COMPLETELY DIFFERENT!
DECEMBER 4, 2014 KHALY CASTLE
– Monty Python

(This is a repost of an article written by Khaly Castle with Erik Johnson, and originally published on 9/15/2011 at CFSUntied.com Blog)

Steering Immunostimulation By Particle’s Size: Nanoparticles and Human Health
What on earth does that mean?


Let’s talk about a paper that was prepublished in “Blood – Journal of the American Society of Hematology” in March 2010, entitled “Particle size and activation threshold: a new dimension of danger signalling”, Rettig et al. (For more detail, please click on the link to read the entire paper.)

This research article starts by describing the innate immune system in basics. The innate immune system works by detecting danger signals, or molecules that originate from invaders and disturbed or abnormal cells.

It goes on to document the three forms of nucleic acid that are recognized by the immune system, and how they are recognized by Toll Like Receptors. When those receptors are activated, the immune response is initiated. Cytokines and co-stimulation molecules are produced, and certain homing and chemokine receptors are upregulated.

Then, the paper shows that there is a difference in how the innate immune system responds when the “invader” is reduced from micro- to nano-particulates.

This is a major concept to get one’s head around.
The “Particle size” paper documents that nanoparticles, but not microparticles, induce interferon-alpha production in human cells. Research suggests that the plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDC), which are critical mediators linking the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, selectively take up nanoparticles, while monocytes require a larger amount of “danger signal” to be fully activated.

Both pathways stimulate the immune system the same way..but the difference seems to be that nanoparticles induce an interferon-alpha response, while microparticles induce production of TNF-alpha.

A little bit about nanoparticles:
In nanotechnology, a number of physical phenomena occur when the size of a system is reduced to nanoscale. Quantum effects become dominant when the nanometer size range is reached. This is known as the “quantum realm”. There can be an increase in surface area to volume ratio, and acceleration of ion transport. The properties of materials change as nanosize is reached and the percentage of atoms at the surface of a material becomes significant.

Although nanotechnology is a subject of bitter debate amongst scientists regarding the safety of usage, there are a multitude of studies which indicate that there are dangers to both the environment and to human health. Most of these dangers are due to the high surface-to-volume ratio, which can make the particles very reactive. Nanostructured Materials, by Jackie Yi-Ru Ying.

For instance, a recent study looked at the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on human immune cells, and found that the smaller the nanoparticle, the more increased the cytotoxicity. Mechanisms of toxicity involve the generation of reactive oxygen species, with monocytes displaying the highest levels, and the degree of cytotoxicity dependent on the extent of nanoparticle interactions with cellular membranes. Hanley et al, The Influences of Cell Type and ZnO Nanoparticle Size on Immune Cell Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Induction.

Some interesting factoids about mold and nanoparticles…
Aspergillus fumigatus is a common mold that is typically found in soil and decaying matter. It readily becomes airborne. It is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause illness in individuals with compromised immune systems. For these people, Aspergillus fumigatus can become pathogenic, causing a range of symptoms and diseases. It also produces cytotoxic mycotoxins.

In nanotechnology, it has been discovered that by using the natural processes of biological systems, Aspergillus fumigatus can be used as a nanoparticle factory. The synthesis process was quite fast and silver nanoparticles were formed within minutes of silver ion coming in contact with the cell filtrate, claims the Bhainsha study from 2006, Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

….and sewer sludge
When legislation went into place to curtail the practice of dumping sewage waste into the ocean, a new practice emerged. Sewer sludge got renamed fertilizer, and got dumped on farmer’s fields under the guise of recycling.

According to the EPA, sewer sludge consists of “volatiles, organic solids, nutrients, disease-causing pathogenic organisms, heavy metals and inorganic ions, and toxic organic chemicals from industrial wastes, household chemicals, and pesticides.”

In other words, you name it, it’s in there, including nanoparticles. And, Aspergillus fumigatus is a common byproduct of sewer sludge.

For more reading on this, try starting with The Real Dirt On Sewer Sludge, by Wendy Priesnitz

What does this have to do with CFS? Maybe nothing. More likely, maybe everything.
When I say CFS, I mean the entity that got named CFS…the Incline outbreak.

. . . .
Continued here: https://cfsuntied.net/2014/12/04/an...eOOZqwphK_sbu-2nVEg15rnvLBXXBKjt7MDbwQ-WlJdH4



@Hip @sb4 @Learner1
 
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debored13

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Previous studies have shown that single stranded RNA (ssRNA) mixed with protamine forms particles and activates immune cells through Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). We have found that the size of protamine-RNA particles generated depends on the electrolyte content when mixing the two components. Moreover, we have evidenced that (i) nanometric particles induce production of interferon-alpha while (ii) micrometric particles mainly induce production of TNF-alpha in human immune cells. We found that the mechanisms underlying these observations are (i) nanoparticles but not microparticles are selectively phagocytosed by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) which produce interferon-alpha and (ii) monocytes that produce TNF-alpha have a higher activation threshold than that of pDCs. Thus, at the same time as sensing Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) such as ssRNA, the immune system distinguishes the size of the associated structure in such a way as to trigger the adapted anti-virus (nanometric) or anti-bacteria/fungi (micrometric) immune response. Our results introduce a new dimension in danger signalling – how size qualitatively affects innate response
 
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Thanks, good info

Here is what I am wondering re: mold.

I have long term lyme and like many others with long term lyme I am SUPER sensitive to any and all mold. All of it, not just one or two species.

And this is very common among lyme patients, and the more people know about it the more lyme patients are realizing that yes, they too are mold sensitive and have been without even being aware of it.

Question: What does lyme (or CFS) do to the body to make it almost defenseless against mold? Before I had lyme I was not this mold sensitive, now I am. So specifically WHAT changed to make me, and other lyme patients, that way?

None of the mold experts like Shoemaker and the others have ever really explained this. They just tell you to take mold binders, and spray stuff up your nose, and correct various bio markers etc.

But none of them have an actual explanation for WHY or HOW suddenly someone goes from having a normal response to mold to an insanely sensitive reaction to every teeny tiny speck of fungus. And just saying "well its the lyme" is not really saying anything.

Is it possible there was some type of pathogen at Incline that disabled the body's response to mold the same way lyme does?

SOMETHING is being disabled in the body of lyme patients that makes them unable to process mycotoxins like all the other humans. What that thing is, no one seems to know.
 
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My speculation is that this intense seeding is responsible for gradually increased resistance in the microbial terrain of north Lake Tahoe, which combined with the newly potentiated indoor toxic molds, resulted in “spot colonies” of extremely hazardous molds which emitted nano-plumes and manifested in unprecedented immune suppression that ALLOWED people in these environments to acquire the opportunistic infections which might otherwise have been warded off, resulting in “clusters” of unexplained illness and the inception of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
-Erik Johnson
I have to be honest and say this sound like wild speculation. There are other areas where this type of cloud seeding was done and nothing like the Incline outbreak happened there. I am just not buying this. I mean I appreciate that he is trying to explain it, but I can't go there with him.
 

debored13

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Thanks, good info

Here is what I am wondering re: mold.

I have long term lyme and like many others with long term lyme I am SUPER sensitive to any and all mold. All of it, not just one or two species.

And this is very common among lyme patients, and the more people know about it the more lyme patients are realizing that yes, they too are mold sensitive and have been without even being aware of it.

Question: What does lyme (or CFS) do to the body to make it almost defenseless against mold? Before I had lyme I was not this mold sensitive, now I am. So specifically WHAT changed to make me, and other lyme patients, that way?

None of the mold experts like Shoemaker and the others have ever really explained this. They just tell you to take mold binders, and spray stuff up your nose, and correct various bio markers etc.

But none of them have an actual explanation for WHY or HOW suddenly someone goes from having a normal response to mold to an insanely sensitive reaction to every teeny tiny speck of fungus. And just saying "well its the lyme" is not really saying anything.

Is it possible there was some type of pathogen at Incline that disabled the body's response to mold the same way lyme does?

SOMETHING is being disabled in the body of lyme patients that makes them unable to process mycotoxins like all the other humans. What that thing is, no one seems to know.
I think it could be as simple as a number of toxic exposures pushing past a certain bodily threshold of damage. If you look at naviaux's work on the cell danger response it talks about mitochondria storing memory of past damage in a way that shows one can have predispositions to things based on a kind of "priming" without needing genetics to explain it.

I also had lyme as my trigger and before lyme wasn't particularly sensitive to mold. But when I look back on it, even though I wasn't sick as a child I did experience abnormal depression, usually in a certain house, that could've been due to mold toxicity.

As far as Incline, Erik's idea, which @Hip has expanded on in the idea of a "dual factor hypothesis", is that the sick buildings combined with a virus that was going around, to devastate people. Erik definitely thinks dealing with mold is the most important part, but Jen Brea mentioned that when she took valcyte, her sensitivity to mold went down some, which makes me think that there could be multiple feedback loops within the relationships btwn mold illness and pathogens

There was documented toxigenic mold in some of the incline buildings where the outbreak happened--Erik's house, the truckee high school... But also part of what lead to this hypothesis is that there was an outbreak of something contagious but it didn't spread to everyone--it had a geographical pattern, only spreading between certain groups of people. stachybotrys and other molds are known to be profoundly immunosuppressive, and this would allow easier spread of a virus.
 

debored13

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I have to be honest and say this sound like wild speculation. There are other areas where this type of cloud seeding was done and nothing like the Incline outbreak happened there. I am just not buying this. I mean I appreciate that he is trying to explain it, but I can't go there with him.
Well, it is certainly speculation. But how else to explain the apparent increase in the toxicity of mold?
Well, to back up... you might say "how do we know mold has become more toxic?"
Anecdotally there has been a huge explosion in the phenomenon of mold illness. THis could just mean mold is more prevalent due to various building practices, but I have talked to many that were also made sick by outdoor biotoxins or toxins that they presume to be biotoxins, that have similar effects to mold.

One could invoke the nocebo effect. But many of the people I am in touch with had documented severe cases of ME/CFS and made measurable, very large improvements in activity level due to avoidance of these toxins.
Since I dont think their illness was fake to start with, I find objective improvments in activity levels that are significant to be interesting.

Erik is possibly the most extreme case--documented not only to be a CFS diagnosed patient in the original tahoe outbreak, but apparently the prototype of the syndrome, and certainly very ill-bedridden at one point, then climbing mountains now... this interests me. and all through mold and "supertoxin" avoidance. And so when he says that he was mold sensitive his whole life but that mold in tahoe got a lot worse in the early 80s, I believe it.

So while I initially considered his theories sort of out there, I lend him some credibility and some benefit of the doubt. again with regard to the cloud seeding claim, i'm not sure about the claim itself but am very curious about what factor could've made mold and outdoor biotoxins much worse in the past forty years or so. I think this is a phenomenon that needs to be explained.
 
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I wonder if its all down to underlying stealth viral/bacterial infections

An infection that is sub clinical, that does not show up on the radar of MD's and yet is still there. Epstein Barr, HSV1, chicken pox/zoster, lyme + coinfections, CMV, Myco P., etc.

That maybe its not that mold is becoming more toxic but that our modern lifestyle is causing virus and bacteria stealth infections to flourish and then those infections disable the body's ability to detox mold and ....boom you get CFS and other problems associated with mold sickness.

Incline may have had an outbreak of sub clinical Myco P (or some other pathogen) which is hard to test for and harder to treat and often goes unnoticed. That caused their defense against mold to be disabled.

Or...it could really be ALL about lyme, all of it. Everyone who has mold sickness and CFS etc could have stealth lyme infections as the root cause. And lyme mutated/evolved in the 1970's to become much much more powerful and toxic to human beings. It could be as simple as the vast overuse of various ABX caused lyme infections that were non-symptomatic to flare up and become full blown as the lyme bacteria reacted to the ABX that were given for other conditions, often negligently. So doctors unknowingly created super-lyme by over prescribing ABX.
 

debored13

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I don’t think lyme has become more toxic or worse, whereas mold has. I’m a Post lyme or chronic Lyme patient and I don’t know why doxy would initially clear my symptoms of acute infection if lyme had developed resistance.

Lyme does add toxins and give a hit to the immune system though , and could be an additive factor. I do think that even if you discount the cloud seeding idea, nanoparticle pollution is a very plausible and important factor in this illness. It’s sometbing the omf should look at. It’s an area that’s drastiically underresearched.

Similarly , mold and outdoor biotoxin , even if you discount the nanoparticle synergy theory, have increased in prevalence due to building practices and agriculture practices , and also due to climate change.

Anecdotally I know more people that have recovered from post lyme symptoms via mold avoidance, than by antibiotics for possiblempersisting lyme.
 

Hip

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Interesting idea, but it would need studies to test whether mold-created nanoparticles might really have ill health effects.
 

Hip

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I recently became aware that the VOCs emitted by mold (responsible for the musty smell of mold) are being investigated for pernicious ill health effects. In this study they propose the term volatoxin to describe these toxic VOCs. It's early days yet on this VOC research though.