Rocephin shots

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I kind of want to sue some people for not treating these terrible infections I have but don't know how to do that?
I started taking ampicillin and it does help brain fog also and increases expression of GLT-1 and may decrease glutamate levels in the brain

what should you take with rocephin so you don't lose your gallbladder though? I'm going to start on course 2 soon, lidocaine does help with pain
 
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Hip

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Hi @Daffodil and @lizw118

You may be interested in this new thread, which examines the antibiotic ampicillin, which appears to be more effective that Rocephin at boosting glutamate transporter expression in the brain, and thus should be better at reducing brain glutamate levels.

So it is possible that ampicillin might give all the same brain fog-reducing benefits that you found Rocephin provides, and compared to Rocephin, ampicillin is cheaper, much safer, and you can take ampicillin orally as a pill.
 
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Hi - bumping up this thread as I have started back on Rocephin. My muscles are so sore from Lyme and Co's that I dread the thought of any IM injection - especially Rocephin. So am considering SubQ. @Hip - you did an injection SubQ in your belly? And? Did you do it more than once? There is not much info online about SubQ Ceftriaxon/Rocephin. Wonder about that. I know it is supposed to be irritating to tissue. Also Hip - I have been reading an article - perhaps one you posted - but don't understand the 1g vs 500 cc. You said 1g SubQ was the same as 500cc IV? ****(not 500 - going back to refer to the article - will post again). Only half the dose SubQ is "bio-available that route or something? I did not read it like that. I thought it sounded similar values. ???
 
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Hip

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. @Hip - you did an injection SubQ in your belly? And? Did you do it more than once?
Only once. Rocephin significantly up-regulates the expression of glutamate transporters in the brain, which clear glutamate. I wanted to see if this one shot of Rocephin might improve my ME/CFS or brain fog. As far as I could tell, it did not (but maybe more shots would be required).



There is not much info online about SubQ Ceftriaxon/Rocephin. Wonder about that. I know it is supposed to be irritating to tissue.
That is because subcutaneous administration has not been validated for clinical use. There is some research to show it may be a viable approach to administration, but I don't think any doctors use the subcutaneous route. There may be some unknown risk.

I think I may have had some mild pain in the injection area for a few days (I did subcutaneous into the belly), but I can't remember now.

So also this post.



Also Hip - I have been reading an article - perhaps one you posted - but don't understand the 1g vs 500 cc. You said 1g SubQ was the same as 500cc IV? Only half the dose SubQ is "bio-available that route or something?
It was not me who wrote that.

500 cc would be half a liter. That I assume is referring to a bag of saline for IV drip of Rocephin.
 
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Oops - brain fog much? Of course not 500cc. Yikes.
Anyway - @Hip with your one injection - did you note tissue irritation?

FWIW I would be using Lidocaine to mix. But something about the Rocephin - wondering what it could do to fatty tissue vs muscle?

Oh - perhaps you did not notice any good effects because you did it SubQ? Perhaps?

Anyway - one of your posts here re: Rocephin SubQ - I think you said something like 1g SubQ is about the same as .5 g IV. I think you had read the article and interpreted it that way. If that is correct then I did not - still can't -interpret it that way. With my brain - who knows.
 

Hip

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Anyway - @Hip with your one injection - did you note tissue irritation?
I can't remember but I think I may have had some mild pain in the injection area for a few days.



I think you said something like 1g SubQ is about the same as .5 g IV.
More or less. 1 gram of subcutaneous Rocephin is approximately the same as 0.5 gram of intramuscular Rocephin.
 

pattismith

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Current approaches to enhance glutamate transporter function and expression
Authors 14 August 2015

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jnc.13200/full

(A list of GLT-1/EAAT2 activators in this paper)

Glutamate Transporter Boosting Medications

Propentofylline increases the expression of both the GLT-1 and GLAST glutamate transporters expression in vitro, and significantly enhanced glutamate uptake in astrocytes. 1 2 Propentofylline oral bioavailability is only 4%. Propentofylline half life of 15 – 45 minutes.

Note that the study used high concentrations of propentofylline (100 microM), which would equate to very high human oral dosages of 30 grams of propentofylline (taking into account the low 4% bioavailability). Transdermal application of propentofylline would be the best idea, as this avoids the first-pass metabolism, but the very high dosage of 30 grams probably makes propentofylline unusable for practical purposes for enhancing glutamate uptake.

Riluzole (a drug for ALS) at a dose of 160 mg elevates GLT-1 glutamate transporter expression and activity. 1 2 Riluzole bioavailability is 60%. Riluzole half-life is 12 hours. Riluzole costs around $1.50 for a 50 mg tablet.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) an injectable beta-lactam antibiotic that increases GLT-1 glutamate transporter expression and activity by a factor of 3, which is a huge increase.1 2 3 4 5 6 Ceftriaxone half life is around 7 hours. A single 500 mg ceftriaxone injection costs around $14.

Amoxicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that increases GLT-1 glutamate transporter expression by 500%. 1 Amoxicillin is quite cheap: you can get 500 x 500 mg capsules for around $60.

Citicoline (a cognitive enhancing supplement) at a dose of 2000 mg per kg in rats increases glutamate uptake and increases the expression of the GLT-1 glutamate transporter in cultured rat astrocytes. The equivalent human dose would be 323 mg per kg, which would work out to a 26 gram oral dose for an 80 kg human (which is far too high to make it viable). 1 Citicoline bioavailability is virtually 100%. Citicoline half life is 3.5 hours.

Valproic acid at a dose of 100 mg per kg in rats increased the expression of glutamate transporter GLT-1 after stroke. 1 The equivalent human dose would be 16 mg per kg.

Alpha lipoic acid at dose of around 270 mg to 1370 mg increases glutamate uptake by 20%. 1 Alpha lipoic acid bioavailability is around 30%. Half life is around 30 minutes.

Pyroglutamate stimulates glutamate transporter activity. 1 2 Pyroglutamic acid is available as a supplement. Arginine pyroglutamate is also available as a supplement.

Morphine withdrawal increases glutamate uptake, and increases the expression of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in the hippocampus. 1 (This might potentially explain why some ME/CFS patients experience major improvements in their symptoms the in the days after taking opioid pain killers, but not during the opioid treatment. See this thread for more info of this interesting opioid effect).

Low-dose naltrexone may increase astrocyte glutamate transport. 1

Reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite impair glutamate transport into astrocytes. 1

Intranasal insulin?
Insulin increases the expression of the GLT1 glutamate transporter in cultured astrocytes. 1



Factors that Reduce Glutamate Transport and Clearance

Low oxygen, due to inadequate blood supply (ischemia), raises glutamate levels.

TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 reduce clearance of glutamate.

4-hydroxynonenal significantly impair glutamate uptake. 1 4-Hydroxynonenal is generated in the oxidation of lipids containing polyunsaturated omega-6 acyl groups, such as arachidonic or linoleic groups.



Glutamate Transporter Nomenclature

Glutamate transporter (GLT-1) is also called the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2). Glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) is also called the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1). GLT-1 plays the predominant role in regulating extracellular glutamate; it is responsible for clearing 90% of the glutamate from the brain.
 
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