Note that antipsychotics are not the only class of drugs acting on the brain that have significant and permanent side effects. Lots of antidepressants, but especially SSRIs, are known to cause permanent sexual and emotional dysfunction, that remains even after stopping the drugs. See post-SSRI sexual dysfunction, which one study found occurred in 70% of patients taking SSRIs or SNRIs.
The above paragraph seems to be about permanent side effects. However, the cited 2010 paper, "Antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction: impact, effects, and treatment" makes no such claim. Instead, it focuses on symptoms of sexual dysfunction and how they vary by antidepressant drug. For example:
The differences between drugs are summarized in Table 1 and were as follows: incidence of sexual dysfunction with SSRIs and venlafaxine (an SNRI) were high ranging between 58% and 70% –
fluoxetine (57.7%), sertaline (62.9%), fluvoxamine (62.3%), venlafaxine (67%), paroxetine (70.7%), and citalopram (72.7%). This compared with a much lower incidence for the newer 5-HT2 blockers (8% nefazodone and 24% mirtazapine).
Clayton et al,13 in an adult outpatient population (4534 women and 1763 men) receiving antidepressant monotherapy, reported rates of sexual dysfunction as follows: mirtazapine and venlafaxine extended release were associated with higher rates (36%–43%), followed by nefazodone (28%), bupropion SR (25%) and bupropion IR (22%).
To be sure, there have been reports of a few cases claiming persistent sexual dysfunction post-discontinuation of SSRIs in databases of adverse drug effects: For example, a 2022 scoping review found 86 cases reported in the Netherlands adverse drug database. However these entries are typically raw unvalidated data, meaning that the cases have not been evaluated for other more likely explanations– from obesity to cholesterol, diabetes, depression, other medications – so the number of actual cases is likely smaller. And without knowing the denominator, i.e., the number of former-antidepressant users and the percentage of those with side effects who fill out one of these reports, it is impossible to know whether the rate of persistent sexual dysfunction post-discontinuation is, say, 2% or 0.00002%. To complicate it even further, one would have to subtract from that the nocebo response -- the percentage of sexual dysfunction post-placebo! (I mention this because it's now been found that the "pooping out" phenomenon, in which an antidepressant loses its effectiveness, is most often due to the loss of placebo response.
we estimated the proportion of relapse attributable to the loss of true drug response versus the loss of response attributable to the nonspecific effects of treatment: The relapse rate in placebo responders was 24.1%, whereas the relapse rate in antidepressant responders was 7.4%. Two different methods of estimating relapse suggested that the majority of relapses in patients taking antidepressants during continuation treatment could be attributed to relapses occurring in patients who were not true drug responders.