Concerns with 5:2 Folirinse:B12
Calling all pharmacists and biochemists to take a look and help us resolve this! :worried:
While the doctor who devised and patented this protocol at http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2008/0045448.html
has written that all of his patients with chronic diseases have high serum folic acid, a spate of recent research articles have been looking at the relationship between high serum folic acid and cancer, questioning whether folic acid fortification is beneficial or puts individuals at a greater risk of cancer. Abstract of these articles follow
Note, I am using the term 'folic acid' specifically to refer to pteromonoglutamic acid or PGA, the form called folic acid in supplements and not to folates found in foods.
One issue is whether the association between high serum folic acid and cancer is causal, or whether it might be a consequence of impaired methylation leading to the increased risk for cancer.
Have any of you been tested for serum folic acid and found to be high?
I know my levels were quite high the first time I ran the Vit Diag methylation panel, and after a year of avoiding folic acid but taking the active folates, they were still high.
 Br J Nutr. 2005 Nov;94(5):727-30.
Evidence of unmetabolised folic acid in cord blood of newborn and serum of 4-day-old infants.
Sweeney MR, McPartlin J, Weir DG, Daly S, Pentieva K, Daly L, Scott JM.
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. email@example.com
Oral folic acid above certain threshold doses results in unmetabolised folic acid in serum. This raises a number of public health safety issues, principally the potential to mask pernicious anaemia; more recently the theoretical potential for high-dose folic acid to promote cancer has been highlighted. In this paper we set out to examine the appearance of unmetabolised folic acid both in cord blood from newborn full-term and premature infants and serum from 4-d-old infants post-formula feeding. Blood was collected from the umbilical cord of eleven infants in the delivery room immediately after birth. A follow-up serum sample (n 9) was collected 4 d later from infants post-formula feeding. We detected unmetabolised folic acid in cord blood from all infants at birth. In addition, unmetabolised folic acid was present in serum of seven infants post-formula feeding, six of which had increased from birth. Our results imply that infants in Ireland, which does not yet have mandatory fortification, could potentially have circulatory unmetabolised folic acid at the time of birth. We do not know if the presence of folic acid in cord blood will have any adverse consequences. However, if theoretical safety concerns are borne out by future research, the likelihood is that the longer the exposure the more likely the potential for harm. This would also be the case in infants exposed to unmetabolised folic acid as a result of formula feeding.
 Nutr Rev. 2006 Oct;64(10 Pt 1):468-75.
Does a high folate intake increase the risk of breast cancer?
Department of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Division of Gastroenterology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Although not uniformly consistent, epidemiologic studies generally suggest an inverse association between dietary intake and blood measurements of folate and breast cancer risk. However, the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening trial has recently reported for the first time a potential harmful effect of high folate intake on breast cancer risk. In this study, the risk of developing breast cancer was significantly increased by 20% in women reporting supplemental folic acid intake > or = 400 microg/d compared with those reporting no supplemental intake. Furthermore, although food folate intake was not significantly related to breast cancer risk, total folate intake, mainly from folic acid supplementation, significantly increased breast cancer risk by 32%. The data from the PLCO trial support prior observations made in epidemiologic, clinical, and animal studies suggesting that folate possesses dual modulatory effects on the development and progression of cancer depending on the timing and dose of folate intervention. Based on the lack of compelling supportive evidence, routine folic acid supplementation should not be recommended as a chemopreventive measure against breast cancer at present.
 Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Mar;51(3):267-92.
Folate and colorectal cancer: an evidence-based critical review.
Department of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, Medical Sciences Building, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. email@example.com
Currently available evidence from epidemiologic, animal, and intervention studies does not unequivocally support the role of folate, a water-soluble B vitamin and important cofactor in one-carbon transfer, in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, when the portfolio of evidence from these studies is analyzed critically, the overall conclusion supports the inverse association between folate status and CRC risk. It is becoming increasingly evident that folate possesses dual modulatory effects on colorectal carcinogenesis depending on the timing and dose of folate intervention. Folate deficiency has an inhibitory effect whereas folate supplementation has a promoting effect on the progression of established colorectal neoplasms. In contrast, folate deficiency in normal colorectal mucosa appears to predispose it to neoplastic transformation, and modest levels of folic acid supplementation suppress, whereas supraphysiologic supplemental doses enhance, the development of cancer in normal colorectal mucosa. Several potential mechanisms relating to the disruption of one-carbon transfer reactions exist to support the dual modulatory role of folate in colorectal carcinogenesis. Based on the lack of compelling supportive evidence and on the potential tumor-promoting effect, routine folic acid supplementation should not be recommended as a chemopreventive measure against CRC at present.
 BMC Public Health. 2009 Aug 18;9:295.
Persistent circulating unmetabolised folic acid in a setting of liberal voluntary folic acid fortification. Implications for further mandatory fortification?
Sweeney MR, Staines A, Daly L, Traynor A, Daly S, Bailey SW, Alverson PB, Ayling JE, Scott JM.
UCD School of Public Health and Population Science, University College Dublin, and Coombe Women's and Infant's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Ireland is an example of a country that has extensive voluntary fortification with folic acid. After a public consultation process, in 2006, the Food Safety Authority in Ireland FSAI 1 recommended mandatory fortification. However due to safety considerations this decision is now on hold. Before mandatory fortification goes ahead, existing levels of unmetabolised folic acid and their anticipated increase after fortification needs investigation because of the potential of folic acid to mask pernicious anaemia and possibly accelerate the growth of existing cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulatory unmetabolised folic acid in Irish adults (both fasted and un-fasted) and new-born infants (fasted) before the proposed implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification. A secondary aim was to predict the increase in circulatory unmetabolised folic acid levels after fortification. METHODS: Study 1. Setting: Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS). Whole blood samples were collected from blood donors (n=50) attending for routine blood donation sessions (representing the general population). Subjects were not fasted prior to sampling. Study 2. Setting: Coombe Women's and Infant's University Hospital, Dublin. Whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture from mothers (n=20), and from their infant's umbilical-cords (n=20) immediately after caesarean section. All women had been fasted for at least 8 hours prior to the surgery. A questionnaire on habitual and recent dietary intakes of folic acid was administered by an interviewer to all subjects. The data collection period was February to April 2006. Serum samples were analysed for plasma folate, plasma folic acid and red cell folate. RESULTS: Blood Donor Group: Circulatory unmetabolised folic acid was present in 18 out of 20 mothers (fasted) (CI: 68.3%-99.8%) comprising 1.31% of total plasma folate, 17 out of 20 babies (fasted) (CI: 62.1%-96.8%), and 49 out of 50 blood donors (unfasted) (CI: 88.0%-99.9%), comprising 2.25% of total plasma folate, CONCLUSION: While the levels of circulatory unmetabolised folic acid reported are low, it is persistently present in women immediately after caesarean section who were fasting indicating that there would be a constant/habitual exposure of existing tumours to folic acid, with the potential for accelerated growth. Mandatory fortification might exacerbate this. This has implications for those with responsibility for drafting legislating in this area.
Comment: This is a not a complete list of articles. It's quite long and I have neither the patience, brain power, training, or time to read them all! But it would seem to me, that a high folate diet, consisting largely of greens, would be typical of all hunter-and-gatherer diets. Given what Weston Price and other researchers have found, these diets were healthy for humans. So the issue then boils down to the chemical vitamin PGA = folic acid.
My questions are: How is folic acid/PGA eliminated from the body?
When levels are high, is there evidence that it inhibits methylation?
All contributing questions and opinions welcome.:Retro smile: