Boron, Molybdenum, SUOX and Sulfites. (The Boron Fix for Sulfites)

aaron_c

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Dr. Roberts of Heartfixer suggests that "Vitamin E succinate, boron, and B12 are felt to stimulate SUOX activity." Although he provides no links to support these theories (and I could find none when I looked), I think that my recent experience strongly supports the link between boron and SUOX activity.

  • Over a year and a half ago I began experimenting with high doses of Molybdenum (an important cofactor for Sulfite Oxidase (SUOX), and found that the dose required to free me of the "fuzzy-brain" feeling was 1500 mcg per day. Until very recently, this is what I have taken, with the exception of maybe two or three times that I tried lowering the Molybdenum dose, only to find that I still needed 1500 mcg. As most of you probably know, this is a pretty huge dose. Nonetheless, hair mineral analysis taken at least six months after beginning the high dose of Molybdenum indicated that my Molybdenum was normal.
  • Over a year ago I first tried taking 6 mg of Boron. I quickly developed insomnia, which lasted for over two weeks in spite of the fact that I only took Boron the once.
  • Recently, I began experimenting with taking the fat-soluable vitamins, and found that, to avoid a sort of mental fatigue, I needed to take Boron--however Boron continued to cause terrible insomnia.
  • Finally, having read the above quote from Dr. Roberts, I decided to experiment with lowering molybdenum. This was based on the understanding that Sulfite Oxidase (SUOX) works within mitochondria, transferring electrons produced via the conversion of Sulfite to Sulfate and Nitrite to Nitric Oxide (particularly when tissues are hypoxic) into the electron transport chain. I reasoned that if Boron was somehow increasing SUOX activity, then maybe the high dose of Molybdenum I was taking was overdriving it, and this was adding too much to the electron transport chains in the tissues rich with SUOX. Wikipedia notes that "In mammals, the expression levels of sulfite oxidase is high in the liver, kidney, and heart, and very low in spleen, brain, skeletal muscle, and blood." This matched the particular patter of the fatigue from Boron: Wired, yet especially weak skeletal muscles, a tired brain, and poor digestion.
  • Within days of lowering my daily dose of molybdenum from 1550 mcg to 50 mcg, my sleep returned to normal (for me), and a few weeks later I have yet to experience a fuzzy feeling I associate with excessive sulfites.
In conclusion: Because Boron A) Helps with my concentration B) Prevents sulfite toxicity and C) Returns my necessary molybdenum dosage to levels that are generally considered "normal," I think that using Boron and small amounts of Molybdenum is a better way to deal with sulfites than just using large amounts of Molybdenum.

Finally, in regards to Vitamin E succinate, which Dr. Roberts suggests increase SUOX activity: I took vitamin E succinate for most of the time I took high doses of molybdenum, but recently went off of it and noticed no difference in how much molybdenum I needed.

If this works for other people too, then it might help to explain the fairly large variance in how much molybdenum individuals need to take to avoid sulfite symptoms. I don't think that mutations are the only issue here, because I do not have any problematic mutations in SUOX that I know of.
 

ahmo

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Thanks Aaron. I've gone from a high of 1800mcg molybd to 900mcg since getting on top of my peroxynitrite problems. I'll definitely be trying out your boron fix. BTW, I switched from E succinate to Gamma E, per the recommendations of Martin Pall, who says the other forms of E can actually make peroxy problems worse.

thanks for supporting our hardworking admin.:hug:
 

Gondwanaland

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@aaron_c
How about the role of Boron in the calcium metabolism? Boron is the same to the parathyroid as iodine is to the thyroid. I know you take heavy supplementation for the calcium metabolism. Boron just seems to be a missing ingredient. Do you also take Strontium?
http://www.bioimmersion.com/media/docs/fructoborate_monograph.pdf

Plus, Boron is also involved in dopamine and testosterone synthesis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21129941

I found your insights re Boron and Moly roles in methylation very interesting. This coming Saturday I am going to start DH on B1 + Moly in a try to overcome his sulfur issues.

Last year when I started Boron supplementation it did wonders for my cognition and fingernails :woot: Unfortunately I had to discontinue supplementation after a few weeks due to pain in a left parathyroid. Have retried it a couple of times at lower doses, but the pain always comes back.
 
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ahmo

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@Gondwanaland Thanks for pointing to these relationships. Interestingly, since I started FMN form of B2, my body has consistently self-tested negative for strontium and boron, as well as manganese, and a number of antioxidants. I took boron recently, but follow-up question to my body re continuing it was met with:meh:. I'll give it a go again, let my mind override my self-testing.;)
 

shannah

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Interesting. I don't know my genetic profile but just a couple of weeks ago I increased boron and had a massive detox reaction.

How much boron is recommended.
 

aaron_c

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@shannah: As with so many things, I think it will be different for different people, and it is always good to start low. I have seen studies looking at supplementing 6 and 10 mg, but I think it is possible they were aiming a little higher than many people might need. Although it increases testosterone, on this thread people are talking about how it raises estradiol, high levels of which can be associated with breast cancer. I think it is a question of balance: For some people (mostly women) high boron levels could be problematic. On the other hand, low boron levels are definitely problematic, at least when they get low enough. From organicfacts.net:

Although all of the deficiency symptoms of boron are not fully understood, it is known that boron deficiency might result in the abnormal metabolism of calcium and magnesium. Some of the other symptoms include hyperthyroidism, sex hormone imbalance, osteoporosis, arthritis and neural malfunction.​

I am currently taking 3 mg Boron per day--it is how much Boron there is in the pills I buy. I don't plan to increase my dose unless my brain starts getting foggy again and I find that Boron helps.

Assuming that boron helps with SUOX, perhaps one measure might be how much Boron do you need to lower your Molybdenum to "normal" doses like 50-100 mcg per day without getting sulfite symptoms. Having said that: We don't know everything about Boron yet, so please regard all of this as a part of a picture that may not be complete yet.
 

ahmo

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Why? Perhaps you have enough of it.
I again asked my body, got a resounding No. So I went looking for boron content of foods, and one of the highest is almonds, of which I'm eating a considerable amount. Carrots have a reasonable amount. And I've found very few references when I looked in the past, as to whether or not bone broth is a source of boron.
 

Gondwanaland

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Interestingly, since I started FMN form of B2, my body has consistently self-tested negative for strontium and boron, as well as manganese, and a number of antioxidants.
This is very intriguing to me since I still ignore the role played by B2 in the calcium metabolism. Manganese ok, due to its report to iron and the role they all play in blood synthesis.
http://www.acu-cell.com/b.html
Boron Synergists: Copper.
Boron Antagonists / Inhibitors: Manganese, calcium.
Low Levels / Therapeutic (Deficiency) Indications for Boron:
Claims of decreased mental alertness in men women and men past the age of 45, increased magnesium
and calcium requirements, decreased bone density, greater risk for prostate cancer.
High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Vitamin B6 / Pyridoxine deficiency, Vitamin B2 / Riboflavin-like deficiencies (skeletal abnormalities), diarrhea,
nausea, vomiting, anemia, dermatitis, ovarian / testicular abnormalities, edema, seizures, gastrointestinal
disturbances, fatigue, cold-like symptoms.
Toxicity is somewhat dependent on an individual's kidney functions and may cause boron accumulation in
kidneys, lungs, bone, liver, heart, brain, fatty tissue, parathyroid and reproductive glands.
Boron Sources: Apples, pears, grapes, non-citrus fruit, legumes, nuts, wine, vegetables, avocado.
 

ahmo

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good find @Gondwanaland A few times I searched for boron and bone broth, and only found 1 or 2 references. I would have thought :)rolleyes:) that since boron is used in bones, we'd get it from bone broth. Any insight here? I certainly have no shortage of bone broth in my diet. But no shortage of nuts, either.;)
 

Gondwanaland

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I started DH with B1 and Moly (100mcg) for his sulfur issues. Moly made his mood fall to the floor :( Then I gave him a multimin with emphasis in Boron (800mcg). Then he got a bad mood :mad: and insomnia... Now he is taking the multimin with Boron, mood and sleep are improved... but still having a hard time to manage his back pain/stiffness. Magnesium helps a great deal with the morning pain, but how could I manage to make him get up pain-free in the morning? :bang-head:
 

xena

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"SO was found to significantly contribute to hypoxic nitrite signaling as demonstrated by activation of the canonical NO-sGC-cGMP pathway."

From one of @aaron_c 's linked papers above

I wonder if a reason that Boron helped was by increasing NO production generally or also by supporting Ammonia detox. The FMN @ahmo mentions eliminating her need for ammonia support is also a cofactor in NO production, which is involved in ammonia detox.

Some have reported benefits from nitric oxide donors... I'm feeling a little benefit, especially in terms of blood pressure from taking Citrulline. I also feel a little better from eating celery, another nitrate donor. The interesting point here is that the celery, molybdenum, Boron would specifically help with nitric oxide signaling in a hypoxic state, like we are in.

I've found that nrf2 activators allow me to tolerate and benefit from sulfur foods and methylation supplements for a few hours after consumption - this paper suggests nitric oxide is involved
https://academic.oup.com/cardiovasc...ation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-by
Edit : I don't think nitric oxide is why the nrf2 helps

In cfs we generally have high iNOS and low eNOS. On a related note, I believe that hornig's group found low ADMA - perhaps from the high iNOS. Robert Naviaux found normal ADMA levels. I think they found normal or slightly Elevated arginine levels. Different people finding different things.

I've noticed that all three of you who have addressed sulfur /ammonia issues in tolerating methylation had used molybdenum continuously at some point. I found it quickly resulted in uric acid buildup with painful muscle pain and brain fog but I was mildly deficient in it. In the same vein, @Gondwanaland mentioned trouble with gout.
 
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aaron_c

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On a related note, I believe that hornig's group found low ADMA - perhaps from the high iNOS. Robert Naviaux found normal ADMA levels.
I wasn't aware anyone had looked into it... Thank you. Hmm...it occurs to me that ADMA requires methylation (di-methyl arginine). And Yasko is the one who pointed out "ammonia" issues, and she has pretty much all of her patients on some kind of methylation support. Maybe high ADMA is only an issue for those of us supporting methylation? If so, that's an important caveat.

I wonder if a reason that Boron helped was by increasing NO production generally
Good catch. And I wonder how it does that... Conversely, one piece of Stephanie Seneff's theory on sulfites is that Nitric Oxide Synthases...or maybe just eNOS...produce sulfate in addition to nitric oxide, and presumably can be induced to only produce sulfate.

Sorry, this is all a little imprecise, and I think there's more to say. My brain is fried tonight.
 

Paralee

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I've read many times that boron is to parathyroids as iodine is to thyroids. You're supposed to take boron with something else (of course I can't remember what) to protect the kidneys.

I didn't know about all this other stuff, I've taken boron a lot because it helps retain my calcium.

Sorry @Gondwanaland , I just realized you had already mentioned the parathyroid part. I really have to slow my reading down.
 
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Paralee

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I finally found out that I have a SUOX variant so I got some molybdenum and started off VERY lightly. I've only taken it about 3 times.... 1/4 of a 250 tablet. I get sleepy and the next morning I have the (TMI?) best bowel movement.

But I don't know enough to keep trying it.
 

Gondwanaland

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@picante just draw my attention to this interesting compendium about sulfites
Report #11 - The Detoxification System Part III: Sulfoxidation and Sulfation

insufficient levels of Cysteine Dioxygenase
Excess free cysteine is recognized as a potent excitotoxin which acts on the NMDA glutamate receptors, hence altering neuronal transmission and finally leading to cell death. Cysteine is comparable in its potency to other excitatory amino acids such as glutamate and aspartate. Cysteine toxicity/excitotoxicity due to poor or reduced activity of cysteine dioxygenase has been implicated in several degenerative diseases.
 

picante

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From the report Izzy linked, this might be helpful for those who are taking molybdenum:
Molybdenum deficiency - molybdenum is an essential trace element occurring as a cofactor in three important enzymatic reactions - xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and sulfite oxidase. Despite the body’s need for molybdenum, the published minimum daily requirement for molybdenum is just 75 micrograms.

Researchers found that many patients presenting with sulfite toxicity/sensitivity symptoms had virtually no detectable blood molybdenum. Normal values are from 10-100 ppb. Studies also indicate that molybdenum may be a rate-limiting nutrient for the conversion of sulfite to sulfate and supplementation may be indicated.

In humans, supplemental molybdenum is well absorbed via oral and intravenous routes of administration. Molybdenum research in humans indicates absorption rates range from 70-90 percent. Once absorbed, molybdenum peaks in the plasma within 40-60 minutes, is rapidly cleared, and within three hours is excreted in the urine as molybdate. A portion of the absorbed molybdenum is deposited in "slow-turnover" tissue such as the liver, muscle, and bone, while another portion is deposited in "fast-turnover" tissue such as the adrenal glands and gastrointestinal tract. The half-life for molybdenum in slow-turnover tissue has been reported to be 42-74 days, compared to 1.7-2.5 days for fast-turnover tissue.

Molybdenum supplements are generally available in one of several forms: sodium molybdate, ammonium molybdate, molybdenum picolinate, molybdenum citrate, and molybdenum aspartate. Although all forms of supplemental molybdenum appear to be well absorbed, research using oral dosages is limited. Therefore, an exact dosage for conditions such as sulfite toxicity/sensitivity has not been established. Supplementation with oral molybdenum covers a wide range of dosages from 50 mcg-6.0 mg daily in divided doses.
I think aldehyde oxidase might be required for detoxing acetaldehyde, which is a by-product of candida infection. So you would probably deplete molybdenum stores just from that.
 

Gondwanaland

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I am having a hard time to tell apart sulfite from boron toxicity, which I just went through.
From the report linked above (page 7):
4. Elevated levels of boron – boron binds to the sulfite oxidase co-factor - vitamin B2, causing it to be excreted and therefore no longer available for detoxification. Foods high in boron are tomatoes, peppers, apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, soya, parsnips, rosehips, hazelnuts, peanuts and almonds.
Add dried fruit to this list and we have both sulfites + boron.

http://www.acu-cell.com/b.html
Boron Synergists: Copper.
Boron Antagonists / Inhibitors: Manganese, calcium.
Low Levels / Therapeutic (Deficiency) Indications for Boron:
Claims of decreased mental alertness in men women and men past the age of 45, increased magnesium
and calcium requirements, decreased bone density, greater risk for prostate cancer.

High levels / Overdose / Toxicity / Negative Side Effects - Symptoms and/or Risk Factors:
Vitamin B6 / Pyridoxine deficiency, Vitamin B2 / Riboflavin-like deficiencies (skeletal abnormalities), diarrhea,
nausea, vomiting, anemia, dermatitis, ovarian / testicular abnormalities, edema, seizures, gastrointestinal
disturbances, fatigue, cold-like symptoms.

Toxicity is somewhat dependent on an individual's kidney functions and may cause boron accumulation in
kidneys, lungs, bone, liver, heart, brain, fatty tissue, parathyroid and reproductive glands.

Boron Sources: Apples, pears, grapes, non-citrus fruit, legumes, nuts, wine, vegetables, avocado.
I know I had Boron overload because I had parathyroid pain (and was gorging on high boron foods). I know I had B2 depletion due to migraines, vomiting, burning eyes.
 

Wayne

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Just got done perusing this thread. Most of it was way over my head however. :rolleyes:

I found this thread because of a very interesting article I read on boron. Here's a LINK to that VERY long and comprehensive article. Below is a snippet from the article...

Health Effects of Boron

Due to their content of boron, borax and boric acid have basically the same health effects, with good antiseptic, antifungal, and antiviral properties but only mild antibacterial action. In plants as well as animals boron is essential for the integrity and function of cell walls, and the way signals are transmitted across membranes.

Boron is distributed throughout the body with the highest concentration in the parathyroid glands, followed by bones and dental enamel. It is essential for healthy bone and joint function, regulating the absorption and metabolism of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus through its influence on the parathyroid glands. With this boron is for the parathyroids what iodine is for the thyroid.

Boron deficiency causes the parathyroids to become overactive, releasing too much parathyroid hormone which raises the blood level of calcium by releasing calcium from bones and teeth. This then leads to osteoarthritis and other forms of arthritis, osteoporosis and tooth decay. With advancing age high blood levels of calcium lead to calcification of soft tissues causing muscle contractions and stiffness; calcification of endocrine glands, especially the pineal gland and the ovaries; arteriosclerosis, kidney stones, and calcification of the kidneys ultimately leading to kidney failure. Boron deficiency combined with magnesium deficiency is especially damaging to the bones and teeth.

Boron affects the metabolism of steroid hormones, and especially of sex hormones. It increases low testosterone levels in men and oestrogen levels in menopausal women. It also has a role in converting vitamin D to its active form, thus increasing calcium uptake and deposition into bone and teeth rather than causing soft tissue to calcify. Also other beneficial effects have been reported such as improvement of heart problems, vision, psoriasis, balance, memory and cognition.

The German cancer researcher Dr Paul-Gerhard Seeger has shown that cancer commonly starts with the deterioration of cell membranes. As boron is essential for cell membranes and boron deficiency widespread, this may be an important cause for the initiation of tumour growth. Boron compounds have anti-tumour properties and are "potent anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory, hypolipemic, anti-coagulant and anti-neoplastic agents" (1).

This overview shows the wide-ranging influence of boron on our health. In the following I want to describe some of these health effects in greater detail.

The Arthritis Cure of Rex Newnham

In the 1960's Rex Newnham, Ph.D., D.O., N.D, developed arthritis. At that time he was a soil and plant scientist in Perth, Western Australia. Conventional drugs did not help, so he looked for the cause into the chemistry of plants. He realized that plants in that area were rather mineral deficient. Knowing that boron aids calcium metabolism in plants he decided to try it. He started taking 30 mg of borax a day, and in three weeks all pain, swelling and stiffness had disappeared.

He told public health and medical school authorities about his discovery but they were not interested. However, some people with arthritis were delighted as they improved. Others were scared to take something with a poison label on the container and meant to kill cockroaches and ants. Eventually he had tablets made with a safe and effective quantity of borax.

Within five years and only by word of mouth he sold 10,000 bottles a month. He could no longer cope and asked a drug company to market it. That was a major mistake. They indicated that this would replace more expensive drugs and reduce their profits. It so happened that they had representatives on government health committees and arranged that in 1981 Australia instituted a regulation that declared boron and its compounds to be poisons in any concentration. He was fined $1000 for selling a poison, and this successfully stopped his arthritis cure from spreading in Australia. (2)...​