• Welcome to Phoenix Rising!

    Created in 2008, Phoenix Rising is the largest and oldest forum dedicated to furthering the understanding of, and finding treatments for, complex chronic illnesses such as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), fibromyalgia, long COVID, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), and allied diseases.

    To become a member, simply click the Register button at the top right.

Big Improvements, DMG and the Simplified Methylation Protocol

Simplified Methylation Protocol and DMG (dimethyl glycine)

Its been 3 years since I became ill. In the beginning I had lot of infections, (Lyme was even suspected, and never dismissed completely) but over time and after a much healthier diet and lots of supplements including strong probiotics, I rarely even get a cold anymore. Ive been doing parts of SHINE, which has also helped somewhat, and Ive tried other protocols and recommendations along the way. I take supplements to help me sleep, so my insomnia is no longer a major issue. And I think my IBS is starting to improve as well. Im even taking armour thyroid since my thyroid was a little on the weak side. But for everything Ive tried, I was never able to get above 30% on my own personal scale (for me this means being able to walk for 10 minutes without needing to sit).

The symptoms that have stayed with me for the duration are 1) Fatigue & some pain 2) Lightheadedness and 3) Agitation. These symptoms always worsened after doing too much or not getting enough sleep. My CFS doctor said my adrenals were probably in bad shape, since all the other tests came back OK and my sympathetic nervous system seemed overworked. He started me on adrenal support supplements about 3 months ago. They definitely seem to be helping, because Im not nearly as jumpy or nervous as I used to be. However my fatigue still had not lifted. . . that is, until about 5 weeks ago, when someone recommended that I try DMG. I did. . . WOW, I went from 30% where I had been for 3 years to about 65% in a matter of minutes. It was incredible. Like chains had been removed from my body, I was dancing around the living room. My wife asked me if I was on drugs or something. Anyway, my doc said the DMG could be working because of a methylation block and this information naturally led me here to this forum. I found new hope again (for the millionth time) so I decided to add the Simplified Methylation Protocol, just to see what else would happen. So far after a few weeks, Im not really sure. I take the S.M.P. every other day to minimize possible reactions. But I still take the DMG (700 -800mg xd) daily because if I dont Im back to 30% . . . and Im useless at 30%.
So my questions are:
1. Has anyone had a similar reaction to DMG (or TMG)?
2. Could my use of other supplements like B-12 or glutamine be contributing factors to DMGs effectiveness?
3. Could such a positive reaction in and of itself be used as a simple indicator of a methylation block?
4. Will it interfere with the Simplified Methylation Protocols effectiveness if I continue taking DMG?
5. Do I need the Simplified Methylation Protocol at this point in my healing process? Or is my particular situation somehow different?
6. Any ideas on anything?

As of now, the DMG at about 2 capsules 3xd keeps me going.

Anyway, Im still trying to understand how all this fits together, but Ill do whatever works. And if my story helps anyone else Ill be really happy.
Thanks and Ill be glad to share more on whats worked for me.
- Joe


Senior Member
Hi, Joe.

Thanks for sharing your experience. I'm not sure how to explain what you've reported. Generally speaking, DMG does two things in the biochemistry. The first is that it slows down the BHMT(betaine homocysteine methyltransferase) reaction, because it is a product of this reaction. The BHMT reaction takes place in the liver and the kidneys, and it is an alternative pathway for converting homocysteine to methionine. Dr. Amy Yasko refers to this as the "short-cut" pathway. The other pathway is the methionine synthase pathway, and that is the one that is partially blocked in ME/CFS. If the level of SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine) is very low, it can be difficult to get the methionine synthase pathway going. Dr. Yasko advocates boosting the short-cut pathway at first, using TMG, and then, after B12 and methylfolate supplements have been added for a while, to switch to DMG, in order to slow the short-cut pathway and shunt more flow into the methionine synthase pathway. So one possibility is that the DMG is cranking up your methionine synthase.

The other thing that DMG does is to donate a methyl group to tetrahydrofolate to produce 5,10 methylene tetrahydrofolate. This is the substrate for the MTHFR reaction, which produces 5L-methyl tetrahydrofolate, which is a reactant for the methionine synthase reaction. So that could also act to boost the activity of methionine synthase.

Perhaps both of these are occurring in your case.

In order to figure out what is going on and to address the questions you asked, I think it would be helpful to run the Health Diagnostics and Research Institute methylation pathways panel. Among other things, this panel measures the levels of SAMe and several forms of folate. This panel costs $295, including the shipper for sending the blood samples to the lab, and it requires an order from a chiropractor or a physician. It can't be run on samples from New York State. Contact information is pasted below.

Best regards,


Methylation Pathways Panel

This panel will indicate whether a person has a partial methylation cycle block and/or glutathione depletion. I recommend that this panel be run before deciding whether to consider treatment for lifting the methylation cycle block. I am not associated with the lab that offers this panel.

The panel requires an order from a physician or a chiropractor. The best way to order the panel is by fax, on a clinicians letterhead.

Available from:

Health Diagnostics and Research Institute
540 Bordentown Avenue, Suite 2300
South Amboy, NJ 08879
Phone: (732) 721-1234
Fax: (732) 525-3288

Email: lab@vitdiag.com

Lab Director: Elizabeth Valentine, M.D.

Dr. Tapan Audhya, Ph.D., is willing to help clinicians with interpretation of the panel by phone, or you can use the interpretive guide below:

March 25, 2012

Interpretation of Results of the Methylation Pathways Panel

Richard A. Van Konynenburg, Ph.D.
Independent Researcher

Disclaimer: The Methylation Pathways Panel is offered by the European Laboratory of Nutrients in the Netherlands and the Health Diagnostics and Research Institute in New Jersey, USA. I am not affiliated with these laboratories, but have been a user of this panel, and have written these suggestions at the request of Tapan Audhya, Ph.D., Director of Research for the Health Diagnostics lab, for the benefit of physicians who may not be familiar with this panel. My suggestions for the interpretation of results of the panel are based on my study of the biochemistry involved, on my own experience with interpreting panel results as part of the analysis of a fairly large number of cases of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) over the past four years, and on discussion of some of the issues with Dr. Audhya. I am a researcher, not a licensed physician. Treatment decisions based on the results of applying this panel and its interpretation to individual cases are the responsibility of the treating physician.

Application: In addition to being useful in analyzing cases of ME/CFS, this panel can also be usefully applied to cases of autism and other disorders that involve abnormalities in glutathione, methylation and the folate metabolism.

The panel includes measurement of two forms of glutathione (reduced and oxidized), S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), adenosine, and seven folate derivatives.

According to Dr. Audhya (personal communication), the reference ranges shown on the lab reports for each of these metabolites were derived from measurements on at least 120 healthy male and female volunteer medical students from ages 20 to 40, non-smoking, and with no known chronic diseases. The reference ranges extend to plus and minus two standard deviations from the mean of these measurements.

Glutathione (reduced): This is a measurement of the concentration of the
chemically reduced (active) form of glutathione (abbreviated GSH) in the blood
plasma. The reference range is 3.8 to 5.5 micromoles per liter.

Glutathione plays many important roles in the biochemistry of the body, including serving as the basis of the antioxidant enzyme system, participating in the detoxication system, and supporting the cell-mediated immune response, all of which exhibit deficits in CFS. The level of GSH in the plasma is likely to be more reflective of tissue intracellular glutathione status than the more commonly and more easily measured red blood cell or (essentially equivalent) whole blood glutathione level, which is about three orders of magnitude greater, because red blood cells are normally net producers of glutathione. Also, knowledge of the level of the reduced form, as distinguished from total (reduced plus oxidized) glutathione, which is more commonly measured, is more diagnostic of the status of glutathione function.

In order to be able to approximate the in vivo level of reduced glutathione when blood samples must be shipped to a lab, it is necessary to include special enzyme inhibitors in the sample vials, and these are included in the test kit supplied by these two laboratories.

Most people with chronic fatigue syndrome (PWCs), but not all, are found to have values of GSH that are below the reference range*. This means that they are suffering from glutathione depletion. As they undergo treatment to lift the partial methylation cycle block, this value usually rises into the normal range over a period of a few months. I believe that this is very important, because
glutathione normally participates in the intracellular metabolism of vitamin B12, and if it is low, a functional deficiency of vitamin B12 results, and insufficient methylcobalamin is produced to support methionine synthase in the methylation cycle. In my view, this is the mechanism that causes the onset of ME/CFS. This functional deficiency is not detected in a conventional serum B12 test, but will produce elevated methylmalonate in a urine organic acids test. In my opinion, many of the abnormalities and symptoms in ME/CFS can be traced directly to glutathione depletion.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that PWCs who do not have glutathione depletion do have abnormalities in the function of one or more of the enzymes that make use of glutathione, i.e. the glutathione peroxidases and/or glutathione transferases. This may be due to genetic polymorphisms or DNA adducts on the genes that code for these enzymes, or in the case of some of the glutathione peroxidases, to a low selenium status.

Glutathione (oxidized): This is a measurement of the concentration
of the oxidized form of glutathione (abbreviated GSSG) in the blood
plasma. The reference range is 0.16 to 0.50 micromoles per liter.

Normally, oxidized glutathione in the cells is recycled back to reduced glutathione by glutathione reductase, an enzyme that requires vitamin B2 and NADPH. If this reaction is overwhelmed by oxidative stress, the cells export excess GSSG to the plasma. In some (but not all) PWCs, GSSG is elevated above the normal
range, and this represents oxidative stress. It is more common in CFS to see this level in the high-normal range. This value may increase slightly under initial treatment of a partial methylation cycle block.*

Ratio of Glutatione (reduced) to Glutathione (oxidized): This is not shown explicitly on the panel results, but can be calculated from them. It is a measure of the redox potential in the plasma, and reflects the state of the antioxidant system in the cells. The normal mean value is 14. PWCs often have a value slightly more than half this amount, indicating a state of glutathione depletion and oxidative stress. This ratio has been found to increase during treatment of a partial methylation cycle block, but other types of treatment may be necessary to bring it to normal.*

S-adenosymethionine (RBC): This is a measure of the concentration of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) in the red blood cells. The reference range is 221 to 256 micromoles per deciliter.

SAMe is produced in the methylation cycle and is the main supplier of methyl (CH3) groups for a large number of methylation reactions in the body, including the methylation of DNA and the biosynthesis of creatine, carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, coenzyme Q10, melatonin and epinephrine. This measurement is made in the red blood cells because the level there reflects an average over a longer time and is less vulnerable to fluctuations than is the plasma level of SAMe.

Most PWCs have values below the reference range, and treatment raises the value.* A low value for SAMe represents a low methylation capacity, and
in CFS, it usually appears to result from an inhibition or partial block of the enzyme methionine synthase in the methylation cycle. Many of the abnormalities in CFS can be tied to lack of sufficient methylation capacity.

S-adenosylhomocysteine (RBC): This is a measure of the
concentration of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in the red blood cells. The reference range is 38.0 to 49.0 micromoles per deciliter.

SAH is the product of the many methyltransferase reactions that utilize SAMe as a source of methyl groups. In CFS, its value ranges from below the reference range to above the reference range. Values appear to converge toward the reference range with treatment.

Sum of SAM and SAH: When the sum of SAM and SAH is below about 268
micromoles per deciliter, it appears to suggest the presence of
upregulating polymorphisms in the cystathionine beta synthase (CBS)
enzyme, though this may not be true in every case. For those considering following the Yasko treatment program, this may be useful information.

Ratio of SAM to SAH: A ratio less than about 4.5 represents low
methylation capacity. Both the concentration of SAM and the ratio of
concentrations of SAM to SAH are important in determining the
methylation capacity, because they affect the rates of the methyltransferase reactions.

Adenosine: This is a measure of the concentration of adenosine in the
blood plasma. The reference range is 16.8 to 21.4 x 10(-8) molar.

Adenosine is a product of the reaction that converts SAH to homocysteine. It is also exported to the plasma when mitochondria develop a low energy charge, so that ATP drops down to ADP, AMP, and eventually, adenosine. Adenosine in the plasma is normally broken down to inosine by the enzyme adenosine deaminase.

In some PWCs adenosine is found to be high, in some it is low, and in some it is in the reference range. I don't yet understand what controls the adenosine level in these patients, and I suspect that there is more than one factor involved. In most PWCs who started with abnormal values, the adenosine level appears to be moving into the reference range with methylation cycle treatment, but more data are needed.

5-CH3-THF: This is a measure of the concentration of 5L-methyl
tetrahydrofolate in the blood plasma. The reference range is 8.4 to 72.6 nanomoles per liter.

This form of folate is present in natural foods, and is normally the most abundant form of folate in the blood plasma. It is the form that serves as a reactant for the enzyme methionine synthase, and is thus the important form for the methylation cycle. It is also the only form of folate that normally can enter the brain. Its only known reactions are the methionine synthase reaction and reaction with the oxidant peroxynitrite.

When there is a partial block in methionine synthase, the other forms of folate continue to be converted to 5L-CH3-THF by the so-called methyl trap mechanism. Some of the 5L-CH3-THF is broken down by reaction with peroxynitrite, which results from the condition of oxidative stress that is usually concomitant with glutathione depletion.

Many PWCs have a low value of 5L-CH3-THF, consistent with a partial block in the methylation cycle. Most methylation treatment protocols include supplementation with 5L-CH3-THF, which is sold over-the-counter as Metafolin, FolaPro, or MethylMate B (trademarks), as well as the newer Quatrefolic (trademark) and in the prescription medical foods supplied by PamLab, including Deplin, CerefolinNAC and Metanx. There are some others on the market that include both racemic forms (5L and 5R) of this folate.

When methylation treatment is used, the level of 5-CH3-THF rises in nearly every PWC. If the concentration of 5-CH3-THF is within the reference range, but either SAM or the ratio of SAM to SAH is below the reference values, it suggests that there is a partial methylation cycle block and that it is caused by inavailability of sufficient bioactive B12, rather than inavailability of sufficient folate. A urine organic acids panel will show elevated methylmalonate if there is a functional deficiency of B12. I have seen this combination frequently, and I think it demonstrates that the functional deficiency of B12 is the immediate root cause of most cases of partial methylation cycle block. Usually glutathione is low in these cases, which is consistent with such a functional deficiency. As the activity of the methylation cycle becomes more normal, the demand for 5-CH3-THF will likely increase, so including it in the treatment protocol, even if not initially low, will likely be beneficial.

10-Formyl-THF: This is a measure of the concentration of 10-formyl
tetrahydrofolate in the blood plasma. The reference range is 1.5 to 8.2 nanomoles per liter.

This form of folate is involved in reactions to form purines, which form part of RNA and DNA as well as ATP. It is usually on the low side in PWCs, likely as a result of the methyl trap mechanism mentioned above. This deficiency is likely the reason for some elevation of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) often seen in PWCs. This deficit may also impact replacement of cells lining the gut, as well as white blood cells.

Rarely, 10-formyl-THF is found to be much higher than the normal reference range. If this is found, the patient should be examined for cancer, since cancer cells upregulate this form of folate in order to make purines more rapidly to support their rapid cell division.

5-Formyl-THF: This is a measure of the concentration of 5-formyl
tetrahydrofolate (also called folinic acid) in the blood plasma. The reference range is 1.2 to 11.7 nanomoles per liter.

This form is not used directly as a substrate in one-carbon transfer reactions, but it can be converted into other forms of folate, and may serve as a buffer form of folate. Most but not all PWCs have a value on the low side. It is one of the
supplements in some methylation protocols. It can be converted to 5L-CH3-THF in the body by a series of three reactions, one of which requires NADPH, and it may also help to supply other forms of folate to the cells until the methionine synthase reaction comes up to more normal activity.

THF: This is a measure of the concentration of tetrahydrofolate in
the blood plasma. The reference range is 0.6 to 6.8 nanomoles per liter.

This is the fundamental chemically reduced form of folate from which several other reduced folate forms are synthesized, and thus serves as the hub of the folate metabolism. THF is also a product of the methionine synthase reaction, and participates in the reaction that converts formiminoglutamate (figlu) into glutamate in the metabolism of histidine. If figlu is found to be elevated in a urine organic acids panel, it usually indicates that THF is low. In PWCs it is lower than the mean normal value of 3.7 nanomoles per liter in most but not all PWCs.

Folic acid: This is a measure of the concentration of folic acid in
the blood plasma. The reference range is 8.9 to 24.6 nanomoles per liter.

Folic acid is a synthetic form of folate, not found in nature. It is added to food grains in the U.S. and some other countries in order to lower the incidence of neural tube birth defects, including spina bifida. It is the oxidized form of folate, and therefore has a long shelf life and is the most common commercial folate supplement. It is normally converted into THF by two sequential reactions catalyzed by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), using NADPH as the reductant. However, some people are not able to carry out this reaction well for genetic reasons, and PWCs may be depleted in NADPH, so folic acid is not the best supplemental form of folate for these people.

Low values suggest folic acid deficiency in the current diet. High values, especially in the presence of low values for THF, may be associated with inability to convert folic acid into reduced folate readily, such as because of a genetic polymorphism in the DHFR enzyme. They may also be due to high supplementation of folic acid.

Folinic acid (WB): This is a measure of the concentration of folinic acid in the whole blood. The reference range is 9.0 to 35.5 nanomoles per liter.

See comments on 5-formyl-THF above. Whole blood folinic acid usually tracks with the plasma 5-formyl-THF concentration. They are the same substance.

Folic acid (RBC): This is a measure of the concentration of folic acid in the red blood cells. The reference range is 400 to 1500 nanomoles per liter.

The red blood cells import folic acid when they are initially being formed, but during most of their lifetime, they do not normally import, export, or use it. They simply serve as reservoirs for it, giving it up when they are broken down.

Many PWCs have low values of this parameter. This can be caused by a low folic acid status in the diet over the previous few months, since the population of RBCs at any time has ages ranging from zero to about four months. However, in CFS it can also be caused by oxidative damage to the cell membranes, which allows folic acid to leak out of the cells. Dr. Audhya reports that treatment with omega-3 fatty acids has been found to raise this value over time in one cohort.

If anyone finds errors in the above suggestions, I would appreciate being notified at richvank@aol.com.

* Nathan, N., and Van Konynenburg, R.A., Treatment Study of Methylation Cycle Support in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia, poster paper, 9th International IACFS/ME Conference, Reno, Nevada, March 12-15, 2009. (http://www.mecfs-vic.org.au/sites/w...Article-2009VanKonynenburg-TrtMethylStudy.pdf)
Thanks a million, rich!. this gives me a direction to move in. I will schedule another appointment with my doctor asap.


Senior Member
Didn't read rich's entire responce, so I will bookmark this and come back.

But I have to add, after trying Sam-e, TMG, and the entire deadlock quartet, I was still feeling iffy (I am on the Freddd protocol). Today was a particularly bad day so i decided to give DMG a shot.

Holy S****. This stuff is like rocket fuel! How am I ever going to get to bed.... I do not know.

I will put a follow-up post on this forum in a couple of days after the excitement dwindles down.


Senior Member
Side note, I still take TMG, Sam-e, deadlock quartet, and many co-factors. Just added dmg


Moderator Resource
Southern California
Didn't read rich's entire responce, so I will bookmark this and come back.

But I have to add, after trying Sam-e, TMG, and the entire deadlock quartet, I was still feeling iffy (I am on the Freddd protocol). Today was a particularly bad day so i decided to give DMG a shot.

Holy S****. This stuff is like rocket fuel! How am I ever going to get to bed.... I do not know.

I will put a follow-up post on this forum in a couple of days after the excitement dwindles down.

What brand DMG are you using? I remember reading a few years ago about it helping someone with ME/CFS but I tried it with no results.


Senior Member
I am experimenting with the NOW brand and also the Foodscience of Vermont brand.

So far it seems pretty equal.
Day 2 and still getting benefits. Last night was crazy compared to this night, though. It was like caffeine at first.
Last edited:
I am looking to try DMG ,myself to boost my immune system. On the short cut. Just to clarify, do I need to stop the shortcut, (phosphiditydlserine) and then take the DMG? Will this slow down methylation??