XMRV the 5th human retrovirus?

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Voisset 2008 - Human RNA “Rumor” Viruses: the Search for Novel Human Retroviruses...

Voisset 2008 Huma.pdf

Human RNA “Rumor” Viruses: the Search for Novel Human Retroviruses in Chronic Disease. Cecile Voisset, Robin A. Weiss, and David J. Griffiths

Abstract
Retroviruses are an important group of pathogens that cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals. Four human retroviruses are currently known, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which causes AIDS, and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, which causes cancer and inflammatory disease. For many years, there have been sporadic reports of additional human retroviral infections, particularly in cancer and other chronic diseases. Unfortunately, many of these putative viruses remain unproven and controversial, and some retrovirologists have dismissed them as merely "human rumor viruses." Work in this field was last reviewed in depth in 1984, and since then, the molecular techniques available for identifying and characterizing retroviruses have improved enormously in sensitivity. The advent of PCR in particular has dramatically enhanced our ability to detect novel viral sequences in human tissues. However, DNA amplification techniques have also increased the potential for false-positive detection due to contamination. In addition, the presence of many families of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) within our DNA can obstruct attempts to identify and validate novel human retroviruses. Here, we aim to bring together the data on "novel" retroviral infections in humans by critically examining the evidence for those putative viruses that have been linked with disease and the likelihood that they represent genuine human infections. We provide a background to the field and a discussion of potential confounding factors along with some technical guidelines. In addition, some of the difficulties associated with obtaining formal proof of causation for common or ubiquitous agents such as HERVs are discussed.
Kim just posted this to the library. (thank you - as always - Kim)

I find it interesting that they say (in 2008) "Four human retroviruses are currently known, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which causes AIDS, and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, which causes cancer and inflammatory disease.".

What are the other 2? I thought XMRV was the 3rd.
 
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I think they are HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-1, HTLV-2.

I've heard some say that XMRV is the 3rd.

They say there are at least 6 strains of XMRV. So does that make a total of 10 human retroviruses? I think sticking with the main name helps, so I'm going to say it is the 3rd.
 
K

_Kim_

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The article has a table that lists them:

TABLE 1. Confirmed infectious human retroviruses

Virus Yr identified Associated disease(s)


HTLV-1 1980 ATL, HAM/TSP, polymyositis, HAA

HTLV-2 1982 HAM/TSPb

HIV-1 1983 AIDS

HIV-2 1986 AIDS

a HAA, HTLV-associated arthropathy.
b The association of HTLV-2 with disease is tentative.
 

Kati

Patient in training
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I believe there have been a discovery of HTLV 3 and 4. Forgot the reference to that if I find it again I will post.
 
K

_Kim_

Guest
I believe there have been a discovery of HTLV 3 and 4. Forgot the reference to that if I find it again I will post.
Righto Kati! This is an older article.

From Wikipedia:
The terms "HTLV-III" and "HTLV-IV" have been used to describe recently characterized viruses.[1][2][3]
These viruses were discovered in 2005 in rural Cameroon, and were apparently transmitted from monkeys to hunters of monkeys through bites and scratches.


  • HTLV-IV does not resemble any known virus.
It is not yet known how much further transmission has occurred among humans, or whether the viruses can cause disease.
The use of these names can cause some confusion, because the name HTLV-III was the former name of HIV in early AIDS literature, but has since fallen out of use.[6]. The name HTLV-IV has also been used to describe HIV-2.[7]
 

Overstressed

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Also HIV-3 has been isolated. A very deadly strain apparently.
Natasa, can you provide me a link to that ? I know that researcher had found a new HIV strain, nl. P, which originated from gorrilas. A Cameroonian woman was infected with this strain, and it was picked up by regular HIV-test.

OS.
 

natasa778

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Overstressed, all I can find now is this info: "In 1988, in cooperation with researchers at the Antwerp Institute of Tropical Medicine tropical medicine, study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of certain diseases prevalent in the tropics. The warmth and humidity of the tropics and the often unsanitary conditions under which so many people in those areas live contribute to the development and
..... Click the link for more information., Innogenetics NV discovered another strain of HIV, which, at that time, was termed HIV-3. The patents and patent applications relating to this virus were licensed exclusively to Boehringer Mannheim. Independently, in 1992, Professor Gurtler and his collaborators together with scientists of Behring Diagnostics discovered and characterized a virus (MVP (Multimedia Video Processor) A high-speed DSP chip from Texas Instruments, introduced in 1994. Officially introduced as the TMS320C80, it combines RISC technology with the functionality of four DSPs on one chip. 5180), which was classified as HIV-1 group O. Scientists determined that HIV-3 of Innogenetics also belonged to the same group O viruses (HIV-O). Professor Gurtler's invention has been exclusively licensed to Behring Diagnostics."

However I am sure I read a paper, found through Pubmed, that was describing HIV-3 isolate in an African man. The paper published date was I think later than the above 92-94, but I cannot trace it now :( sorry
 

Overstressed

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Hi Natasa,

ok, personally I think it's just another strain of HIV-1. The last strain(P) found was the one I mentioned in my previous reply. It originated from gorillas... This article can be found easily if you google. It were French researchers who found this strain, because the woman came to France and tested positive.

Take care,
OS.