Low Levels of Vitamin A Cause Lowered ATP in Mitoichondria

liverock

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Scientists Identify Vitamin A Role in Energy Production

March 2010

Vitamin A may play a critical role in the production of energy in our cells, says an international team of researchers who claim to have solved the question of why vitamin A deficiency causes so many diseases.

According to findings published in the FASEB Journal, vitamin A (retinol) may play a role in the synthesis of ATP in mitochondria—the power plant of the cells—and when vitamin A is deficient the production of energy is reduced by 30%.

Researchers led by Ulrich Hammerling from the Institute for Cancer Research, New York, found that when vitamin A supplies are adequate, the preferred energy sources are glycolysis and pyruvate production. On the other hand, when the vitamin is scarce the body turns to fat reserves, preparing the organism to win energy from fat oxidation.

However, when cells are deprived of retinol, the synthesis of ATP decreases as does respiration. But such declines were reversed when retinol levels were restored, and no conversion to other retinoids was observed, showing the effect was related purely to retinol.

"Bioenergetics is fundamental to all cells," wrote the researchers. "In view of this tenet, it is puzzling why metabolic regulation by the pathway described in this report depends on retinol that vertebrates cannot synthesize de novo (anew).

"In limiting vitamin A to nutritional sources, there must be an evolutionary advantage of such import as to override the physiological needs for vitamin A in vision and retinoic acid-dependent transcription.

"The answer may lie in the scenario that finite amounts of vitamin A are subject to depletion during periods of severe starvation when an organism is forced to conserve energy. Our observation that in the absence of vitamin A energy generation by respiration adapts downwards appears relevant in this context," added the researchers.

Data from vitamin A-deficient mice has previously indicated that triglycerides accumulate in the liver and may signify a switch to fat for energy generation, said the researchers, in order to offset the limited use of glycolysis and pyruvate production.

"It is also predictable that chronic deviations of vitamin A transport will lead to metabolic disease," Hammerling and his co-workers added.

FASEB Journal 24(2):627-626, 2010


Time to get out the cod liver oil again?:rolleyes:
 

spindrift

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I depleted Retinol Levels by taking 1 000 000 IU of Hormone D over the course of one year resulting in low energy because of low copper/ceruloplasmin. CLO helped to reverse that.

 

JPV

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I depleted Retinol Levels by taking 1 000 000 IU of Hormone D over the course of one year resulting in low energy because of low copper/ceruloplasmin. CLO helped to reverse that.
How much CLO did you take per day and how long before you saw any positive results?
 
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I'm still working on that. I took one tablespoon first but it was too much and I got really tired at afternoon. Now I take one teaspoon and I'm feeling slightly better every day. I feel like something happens with iron and copper metabolism and I have increased my intake of meat, liver and blood sausage to get more iron and copper. I feel like I need it now more than before. But I take a lot of K2 / Mk-7 and Taurine to handle the much calcium I recently got from that much D. I became sleepless and muscle cramping and hardening and it took me a while to find out that it came from too much calcium (D) and resulted in low ceruloplasmin due to low retinol from high D - according to Morley Robbins. I hope he is right in that, but my body response to CLO feels like something right is happening, but also many things that have been suppressed in the liver now happen very fast and heavily so I become very tired from CLO. I still could not find out why exactly retinol is so important with certain synthetsis, but maybe somebody knows more. I have this feeling that retinol is somehow underestimated because it is so essential and unspoken. I think there might be more to it. And I believe we usually don't eat enough organ meats, maybe?
I don't want to spread wrong information and everybody should try to confirm this but I've read in an german kind of lexicon that the livers stellate cells capacity to store Vitamin A ist inexhaustible. I have to find out if its true. Because if it is the whole Vitamin A toxicity would be indeed another scare tactic. I don't know.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatic_stellate_cell
 
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This are the sources quotations, which the article references about the storage capacity of retinol ester. But I don't know if they exist in english?
  1. Biesalski H. K., Köhrle J., Schümann K. (2002) Vitamine, Spurenelemente und Mineralstoffe. Prävention und Therapie mit Mikronährstoffen. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart
  2. Biesalski H. K., Fürst P., Kasper H. et al. (2004) Ernährungsmedizin. Nach dem Curriculum Ernährungsmedizin der Bundesärztekammer. 3. Auflage. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart
 

South

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Beta carotene is not a reliable source of actual vitamin A for many people: the conversion of beta carotene to real vitamin A in your liver can be deficient for a number of reasons. Plant source "vitamin A" isn't actually vitamin A in the bottle unless the label says something OTHER THAN "beta carotene". "Pro vitamin A" isn't the real thing either, it's just another phrase that means "beta carotene", which requires conversion by the body - and that conversion may or may not happen.

Luckily for someone who dislikes the smell of cod/fish oil like me, real vitamin A is not expensive or hard to take, and doesn't have to be in tablespoons of fish oil (ugh): it is often sold in tiny gelcaps, sourced from fish and concentrated so the gelcaps are small.
 

Gingergrrl

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@liverock I think you and I have discussed this before but am not remembering the specifics. How much Vit A do you (and the others) think someone would need who is supplementing with 5000 IU's of daily Vit D? Am asking for myself and I do not tolerate fish oil in any form so would need a different version of Vit A.
 

JamBob

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Thanks for posting this interesting piece. I have had abnormally low levels of Vitamin A for years - it is more common in hypothyroid/diabetic people. My doctor has been banging on at me for years to supplement but I've never taken it seriously. I'll start now!!
 

JamBob

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@liverock I think you and I have discussed this before but am not remembering the specifics. How much Vit A do you (and the others) think someone would need who is supplementing with 5000 IU's of daily Vit D? Am asking for myself and I do not tolerate fish oil in any form so would need a different version of Vit A.
It's probably worth getting a test done to see how low you actually are (if low at all). I always have low Vit A and can take 10,000IU a day and not see much of a rise - I think it is because I have endocrine disease and don't convert to Vit A properly.
 

liverock

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@liverock I think you and I have discussed this before but am not remembering the specifics. How much Vit A do you (and the others) think someone would need who is supplementing with 5000 IU's of daily Vit D? Am asking for myself and I do not tolerate fish oil in any form so would need a different version of Vit A.
@Gingergrrl

Recent studies have shown that it is only when Vit D 25 OHD levels fall below the low level of 50 nanomoles/l, that there can be problems with Vit A interactions according to Dr Axe. You should be OK with 5,000 iu but if you are not sure get a test.

If you cant take fish oils then getting Vit A through the meat and vegetables in your diet would be OK. I think you might be better testing your Vit A levels first to ascertain what dosage you need, as it has been found that some people with autoimmune diseases have trouble absorbing Vit A, Some people also have trouble converting the carotenoids in vegetables to active Vit A. As Vit A is needed to help protect the lungs, it might also be wiser to make sure you have an adequate dosage in your case.

https://draxe.com/vitamin-a/

Magnesium and vitamin K2 supplementation are usually taken with higher dosages of vit D, to help prevent calcium buildup in soft tissues and arteries. Calcium intake through the diet should also be at least DV level. Check with your doctor for any interactions with any drugs you are taking first.
 

Gingergrrl

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It's probably worth getting a test done to see how low you actually are (if low at all). I always have low Vit A and can take 10,000IU a day and not see much of a rise - I think it is because I have endocrine disease and don't convert to Vit A properly.
@JamBob Thanks and I don't think that I have ever been tested for Vit A level before. Would it normally be an Endo who tests you? My Endo has tested my Vit D and Magnesium levels many times but never Vit A. You mentioned that you have endocrine disease and was curious if you have Hashimoto's (like me) or something else? Is it your Endo who tests your Vit A levels?

Recent studies have shown that it is only when Vit D 25 OHD levels fall below the low level of 50 nanomoles/l, that there can be problems with Vit A interactions according to Dr Axe. You should be OK with 5,000 iu but if you are not sure get a test.
@liverock My Vit D level on blood tests falls VERY low if I do not supplement. I was taking 10,000 IU's per day but reduced it to 5,000 maybe about six months ago. I will definitely look at the link that you posted.

If you cant take fish oils then getting Vit A through the meat and vegetables in your diet would be OK.
I actually do not eat any type of fish but I eat other meat like lamb, beef, chicken or turkey (fresh or frozen in my case so not too much histamine build up). I do eat vegetables but probably do not eat enough to get Vit A from them. I also eat eggs.

I think you might be better testing your Vit A levels first to ascertain what dosage you need, as it has been found that some people with autoimmune diseases have trouble absorbing Vit A, Some people also have trouble converting the carotenoids in vegetables to active Vit A. As Vit A is needed to help protect the lungs, it might also be wiser to make sure you have an adequate dosage in your case.
Yes and am going to ask my Endo about this when we do my next go-round of thyroid tests. He is pretty open to testing for whatever I ask for (within reason)!

Magnesium and vitamin K2 supplementation are usually taken with higher dosages of vit D, to help prevent calcium buildup in soft tissues and arteries. Calcium intake through the diet should also be at least DV level. Check with your doctor for any interactions with any drugs you are taking first.
I do supplement with Mg Malate but have never taken Vit K2. I continue to have confusion re: the Mg/CA+ issue b/c I have the antibody that attacks the CA+ channels and have been told very conflicting things by different doctors. I do drink milk and eat yogurt, cheese, and other products that have calcium but I do not supplement with CA+.
 

Gingergrrl

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Weren't you going to do (or did?) the NutraEval? That would have tested your Vit A.
@Sushi I actually never ended up doing the NutrEval and when we lost everything to mold in summer of 2015, I no longer even have the kit! I am sure it would've had lots of interesting info but once I learned that I had all of these autoantibodies everything went in a different direction w/my treatment.
 

liverock

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I'm still working on that. I took one tablespoon first but it was too much and I got really tired at afternoon. Now I take one teaspoon and I'm feeling slightly better every day. I feel like something happens with iron and copper metabolism and I have increased my intake of meat, liver and blood sausage to get more iron and copper. I feel like I need it now more than before. But I take a lot of K2 / Mk-7 and Taurine to handle the much calcium I recently got from that much D. I became sleepless and muscle cramping and hardening and it took me a while to find out that it came from too much calcium (D) and resulted in low ceruloplasmin due to low retinol from high D - according to Morley Robbins. I hope he is right in that, but my body response to CLO feels like something right is happening, but also many things that have been suppressed in the liver now happen very fast and heavily so I become very tired from CLO. I still could not find out why exactly retinol is so important with certain synthetsis, but maybe somebody knows more. I have this feeling that retinol is somehow underestimated because it is so essential and unspoken. I think there might be more to it. And I believe we usually don't eat enough organ meats, maybe?
I don't want to spread wrong information and everybody should try to confirm this but I've read in an german kind of lexicon that the livers stellate cells capacity to store Vitamin A ist inexhaustible. I have to find out if its true. Because if it is the whole Vitamin A toxicity would be indeed another scare tactic. I don't know.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatic_stellate_cell


Taurine is a copper antagonist and using it at a high level to lower calcium will at the same time lower copper absorption.

High calcium will also tend to lower electrolytes sodium and potassium and cause fatigue. Ceruloplasmin is also dependent on adequate adrenal function and lower sodium and potassium could compromise the adrenals.

http://www.traceelements.com/docs/Calcium Wheels.pdf
 
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Chocolove

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Check these out:
UK women at risk from vitamin A deficiency -- ScienceDaily
Nov 18, 2009 ... Almost half of UK women could be suffering from a lack of vitamin A due to a previously undiscovered genetic variation, scientists have found.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091118072051.htm
wo common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding beta-carotene 15,15%u2019-monoxygenase alter beta-carotene metabolism in female volunteers. The FASEB Journal, DOI: 10.1096/fj.08-121962
**************************************************************************************

Vitamin A depletion causes oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and PARP-1-dependent energy deprivation
  1. Haw-Jyh Chiu*,
  2. Donald A. Fischman and
  3. Ulrich Hammerling*,1
July 2, 2008
http://www.fasebj.org/content/22/11/3878.abstract
*************************************************************************************************************************************

Vitamin A deficiency is detrimental to blood stem cells
Date: May 5, 2017
Source: German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ)
Summary: Lack of vitamin A in the body has a detrimental effect on the hematopoietic system in the bone marrow. The deficiency causes a loss of important blood stem cells...
Vitamin A-Retinoic Acid Signaling Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Dormancy. Cell, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.04.018
*************************************************************************************************************************************

The role of vitamin A in diabetes
Date: June 13, 2017
Source: Lund University
Summary: There has been no known link between diabetes and vitamin A -- until now. A new study suggests that the vitamin improves the insulin producing ?-cell's function.
"The researchers initially discovered that insulin-producing beta-cells contain a large quantity of a cell surface receptor for vitamin A. The researchers also saw that the beta-cells' resistance to inflammation decreases in the absence of vitamin A. In case of a complete deficiency, the cells die."

Anti-diabetic action of all-trans retinoic acid and the orphan G protein coupled receptor GPRC5C in pancreatic β-cells. Endocrine Journal, 2017; 64 (3): 325 DOI: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ16-0338
 
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