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Khan Academy: The Immune System

optimist

Senior Member
Messages
434
Location
Norway
Thought you might be interested in learning together with me :)

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/immune-system

screenshot2.png
 
Last edited:

Lillybelle

Senior Member
Messages
110
Location
Australia
@optimist Let me know when youve finished one of the videos, which one and we'll discuss the most important thing we perceived from it and how it relates to M.E.?
1. The Role of Phagocytes: you go first
 

optimist

Senior Member
Messages
434
Location
Norway
Phagocytes are part of the non-specific group of the immune-system, that is, they will generally attack anything that looks alien to them. They can do this by wrapping themselves around the pathogen, bacteria or virus, fully encapsulating them, and so killing them. They can also kill them through emitting chemicals, and one more that I forgot... I guess I'll have to watch it again :p
 

optimist

Senior Member
Messages
434
Location
Norway
Take 2:

Pathogens: bacteria, viruses, proteins, parasites, fungi...
First line of defence in our bodies are: the skin, the mucous membranes, the stomach acid and the like.

Second line:
  • Inflammatory responses - bringing fluids and various fighter cells to the area of conflict.
  • Phagozytes - eats up pathongens.
Phagocytes has receptors ("super sensors") that responds to things that are bad. Bacteria has proteins on their surface that the phagocytes will recognize as bad, and so the phagocyte will connect to that bacteria, and fully encapsulate it. The phagocyte is now called a phagozome. The phagozome will now "digest" the bacteria, break it apart to proteins, and in so doing, killing it. Then a Major Histocompanility Complex type 2 (MHC II) will take one of the proteins from the digested bacteria and present it on the surface of the phagozome for others to learn about what it has just killed.

Many phagocytes are called: "Antigen presenting cells" because they do this.

Three types of phagocytes:
  • Neutrophils - fast and abundant
  • Macrophages
  • Dendrites
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Relates to ME

I have no idea yet, but maybe autoimmunity among other things is the phagocytes eating things that they shouldn't.
 

Lillybelle

Senior Member
Messages
110
Location
Australia
@optimist
1. Phagocytes are the Immune System's Second Line of Defence (internally) against non specific pathogens invading our body. These pathogens can be proteins, viruses,bacteria, fungi or parasites (yuk).

A.Non specific is important because the phag does not recognise the type of invader ie; virus abc or protein 1,2,3. Which can in fact be a bad thing when you have an autoimmune disease because these cells are on constant alert attacking its own cells which it thinks are invaders but are in fact not.

B. First the phagocytes engulf the pathogen, wraps around it and sucks it inside and places it in a receptical "phagasome" here it waits until some ogygenated material destroys it.

C. Then the Phagocytes take a part of the invader material (peptide ), attaches it to some other protein "major histocompatability complex" (MHCII) and presents it on the outside of itself.It then becomes an "Antigen Presenting Cell"

D. Types of Phagocytes:
1.Neutrophils, fast and abundant get there quickly
2. Macrophages: most versatile heavy lifters
3. Dendritic Cells (look like dendrites)
;)
 

Lillybelle

Senior Member
Messages
110
Location
Australia
@optimist Sorry about the length of the last post. I thought I may as well summarise and keep it on my computer.
by the way thanks again: The visuals of the Phagocytes will be a great help for my meditation and Imagery where I concentrate on eradicating M.E. by visualising it and the attackers. I now have a clear pic for those attackers for this process thanks to you!!!
OK
2. Types of immune Response Innate and Adaptive
 

Lillybelle

Senior Member
Messages
110
Location
Australia
@optimist 1. Types of Immune Response Innate and Adaptive: Humoral vs Cell Mediated

1. Macrophages are white blood cells (leukocytes) and part of Second Line of Defense of Innate Immune Response

2. Specific Immune System (Adaptive ‘human’ Immune System) ie: Resistance to that virus/bacteria

Lymphocytes are the main guys here (also called white bloodcells : leukocytes)

A. B Cells(bone marrow)Lymphocytes= Humoral Response

B. and T Cells(Thymus)Lymphocytes = Cell Mediated Response

2. Humoral Cell Response is helpful when a virus or pathogen is floating in the body’s fluid but has not infected our cells yet. Cell mediated response happens once the pathogen is inside the body’s own cells.
 

Lillybelle

Senior Member
Messages
110
Location
Australia
@optimist ok last one for now. Your turn!
If anyone knows the role or compromising of the role of B cells or T Cells in ME please share now. I do know Natural Killer Cell function is reduced. Are they a B cell?
______________________________________________________________________________
1. B Lymphocytes


1. Membrane Bound Antibodies= proteins and = Immunoglobulin= chooks feet on their surface



2. Each B Cell has 10,000 different variable portions on each cell. There are 10 billions of combinations of these “variable portions” on the B Cells (Chooks feet)



3. These B cells have the same DNA however their billions of combinations of receptor variable portions mean that eventually one of the B cells will have the right combination to attack an unknown invader.



4. Eventually the right B cell will fit the invader cell to bind. The B cell becomes “activated” after binding to the new pathogen. Then he becomes cloning himself, multiplying and differentiating. 2 different types:



a) Memory Cells = will hang around and are of huge no’a

b) Affector Cells=Antibody Factories = Spit out antibodies that bind to new pathogen. Molecules are tagged then to be picked up “Opsonization” for Macrophages to go attack them. May make virus harder to function with tags on these cells.
 

Aileen

Senior Member
Messages
615
Location
Canada
Here is an upcoming course, begins August 18, 2014 that I think will be of interest to some of you. I have signed up and would be interested in having a "study group" with those of you who may be interested.

Fundamentals of Immunology, Part 1 [here] It is on the EdX platform. (EdX is like Coursera, only with a different group of universities participating.) The course and the prof sound very good.
 
Messages
60
Location
Seattle
@optimist ok last one for now. Your turn!
If anyone knows the role or compromising of the role of B cells or T Cells in ME please share now. I do know Natural Killer Cell function is reduced. Are they a B cell?
NK and B cells are different cells - he touches on that in the "blood cell lineages" video.
 

Lillybelle

Senior Member
Messages
110
Location
Australia
Here is an upcoming course, begins August 18, 2014 that I think will be of interest to some of you. I have signed up and would be interested in having a "study group" with those of you who may be interested.

Fundamentals of Immunology, Part 1 [here] It is on the EdX platform. (EdX is like Coursera, only with a different group of universities participating.) The course and the prof sound very good.
@Aileen am already enrolled! C U there!I wont use this username so pm me if you want to hook up.
There are also 2 courses on Edex on basic genetics. One of which discusses the 23 and me tests and how to interpret them properly.
 
Messages
60
Location
Seattle
Here is an upcoming course, begins August 18, 2014 that I think will be of interest to some of you. I have signed up and would be interested in having a "study group" with those of you who may be interested.

Fundamentals of Immunology, Part 1 [here] It is on the EdX platform. (EdX is like Coursera, only with a different group of universities participating.) The course and the prof sound very good.

I signed up; thanks for passing that info. on. I may or may not stick with it; my biology might be a bit shaky. But the great thing about these online courses is you can absorb what you want and learn something.

Perhaps we should start a thread dedicated to discussing the course?
 

Lillybelle

Senior Member
Messages
110
Location
Australia
Which one is this? TIA
Sorry @Aileen the Genetics one is on Coursera https://www.coursera.org/course/usefulgenetics
Startsin September:cool:

Who might want to take this course?
  • People affected by or concerned about a genetic disease (either directly or in a family member)
  • People interested in the genetic diversity of humans or other species
  • People who have had (or are considering having) their genes or genomes analyzed by companies such as 23andMe
  • People concerned about the public use of personal genetic information
  • People interested in breeding animals or plants, or in in conservation of endangered species
  • People interested in genealogy and ancestry analysis
  • Health care professionals
  • Science teachers
  • Anyone interested in genetics but unable to enroll in university at this time
 

Leopardtail

Senior Member
Messages
1,151
Location
England
Take 2:

Pathogens: bacteria, viruses, proteins, parasites, fungi...
First line of defence in our bodies are: the skin, the mucous membranes, the stomach acid and the like.

Second line:
  • Inflammatory responses - bringing fluids and various fighter cells to the area of conflict.
  • Phagozytes - eats up pathongens.
Phagocytes has receptors ("super sensors") that responds to things that are bad. Bacteria has proteins on their surface that the phagocytes will recognize as bad, and so the phagocyte will connect to that bacteria, and fully encapsulate it. The phagocyte is now called a phagozome. The phagozome will now "digest" the bacteria, break it apart to proteins, and in so doing, killing it. Then a Major Histocompanility Complex type 2 (MHC II) will take one of the proteins from the digested bacteria and present it on the surface of the phagozome for others to learn about what it has just killed.

Many phagocytes are called: "Antigen presenting cells" because they do this.

Three types of phagocytes:
  • Neutrophils - fast and abundant
  • Macrophages
  • Dendrites
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Relates to ME

I have no idea yet, but maybe autoimmunity among other things is the phagocytes eating things that they shouldn't.
or not eating this they should?