Isoprenoid pathway dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome


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Isoprenoid pathway dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome
Kurup 2003
The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in 15 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The pathway was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to assess whether hemispheric dominance has any correlation with these disease states.

The isoprenoid metabolites - digoxin, dolichol and ubiquinone - RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium and tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns were assessed. The free radical metabolism, glycoconjugate metabolism and RBC membrane composition were also assessed.

Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium levels were decreased while HMG-CoA reductase activity and serum digoxin levels were increased in CFS. There were increased levels of tryptophan catabolites - nicotine, strychnine, quinolinic acid and serotonin - and decreased levels of tyrosine catabolites -dopamine, norepinephrine and morphine - in CFS.
There was an increase in dolichol levels, carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, glycolipids, total/individual glycosaminoglycans (GAG) fractions and lysosomal enzymes in CFS.
Reduced levels of ubiquinone, reduced glutathione and free radical scavenging enzymes as well as increased lipid peroxidation products and nitric oxide were noticed in CFS.

The biochemical patterns in CFS correlated with those obtained in right hemispheric dominance.

The role of hypothalamic digoxin and neurotransmitter-induced immune activation, altered glycoconjugate metabolism and resultant defective viral antigen presentation, NMDA excitotoxicity and cognitive and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CFS is stressed. CFS occurs in individuals with right hemispheric dominance.

The studies from this author are a bit strange, with no group control, but I think they are worth debated, so I put two others:

Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and oncogenesis: evidence from multiple myeloma.
Kurup 2003

This study assessed the changes in the isoprenoid pathway and its metabolites digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone in multiple myeloma. The isoprenoid pathway and digoxin status were also studied for comparison in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to find out the rote of cerebral dominance in the genesis of multiple myeloma and neoplasms.

The following parameters were assessed: isoprenoid pathway metabolites, tyrosine and tryptophan catabolites, glycoconjugate metabolism, RBC membrane composition, and free radical metabolism--in multiple myeloma, as well as in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance.

There was elevation in plasma HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin, and dolichol, and a reduction in RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum ubiquinone, and magnesium levels. Serum tryptophan, serotonin, nicotine, strychnine, and quinolinic acid were elevated, while tyrosine, dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine were decreased.

The total serum glycosaminoglycans and glycosaminoglycan fractions, the activity of GAG degrading enzymes and glycohydrolases, carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, and serum glycolipids were elevated. The RBC membrane glycosaminoglycans, hexose, and fucose residues of glycoproteins, cholesterol, and phospholipids were reduced.

The activity of all free-radical scavenging enzymes, concentration of glutathione, iron binding capacity, and ceruloplasmin decreased significantly, while the concentration of lipid peroxidation products and nitric oxide increased.

Hyperdigoxinemia-related altered intracellular Ca++/Mg++ ratios mediated oncogene activation, dolichol-induced altered glycoconjugate metabolism, and ubiquinone deficiency-related mitochondrial dysfunction can contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.

The biochemical patterns obtained in multiple myeloma are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with multiple myeloma were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test.

Multiple myeloma occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

A hypothalamic digoxin-mediated model for autism.
Kurup 2003


The isoprenoid pathway and its metabolites--digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone--were assessed in autism.

The isoprenoid pathway and digoxin status was also studied for comparison in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to determine the role of cerebral dominance in the genesis of autism. There was an upregulation of the isoprenoid pathway as evidenced by elevated HMG CoA reductase activity in autism. Digoxin, an endogenous Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor secreted by the hypothalamus, was found to be elevated and RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity was found to be reduced in autism. Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibition can result in increased intracellular Ca2+ and reduced magnesium levels. Hypothalamic digoxin can modulate conscious and subliminal perception and its dysfunction may lead to autism.

Digoxin can also preferentially upregulate tryptophan transport over tyrosine resulting in increased levels of depolarizing tryptophan catabolites--serotonin, quinolinic acid (NMDA agonist), strychnine (blocks glycinergic inhibitory transmission), and nicotine (promotes dopamine release) and decreased levels of hyperpolarizing tyrosine catabolites--dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine--contributing to membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibition.

Increased nicotine levels can produce increased dopaminergic transmission in the presence of low dopamine levels.
NMDA excitotoxicity could result from hypomagnesemia induced by membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibition and quinolinic acid, an NMDA agonist acting on the NMDA receptor. Hypomagnesemia and increased dolichol level can affect glycoconjugate metabolism and membranogenesis leading on to disordered synaptic connectivity in the limbic allocortex and defective presentation of viral antigens and neuronal antigens contributing to autoimmunity and viral persistence important in the pathogenesis. Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibition can produce immune activation, a component of autoimmunity.
Mitochondrial dysfunction consequent to altered calcium/magnesium ratios and reduced ubiquinone levels can result in increased free radical generation and reduced free radical scavenging and defective apoptosis leading to abnormal synaptogenesis. Autism can thus be considered a syndrome of hypothalamic digoxin hypersecretion consequent to an upregulated isoprenoid pathway.
The biochemical patterns including hyperdigoxinemia observed in autism correlated with those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Right hemispheric chemical dominance is a predisposing factor for autism.


Breaking Through The Fog
At one point I bought a very cheap home EEG device and interpretation software and it definitely showed more activity on the right side of my brain.

I also read about "right hemisphere depression".