I thought I'd start a thread where we could share research on enteroviruses. Several of us, including myself, have been found to have excessive amounts of dsRNA in our gut biopsies by Dr. Chia. Here is a start: http://jvi.asm.org/content/73/12/10113.full#abstract-1 Molecular Mechanisms of Coxsackievirus Persistence in Chronic Inflammatory Myopathy: Viral RNA Persists through Formation of a Double-Stranded Complex without Associated Genomic Mutations or Evolution - this study looks at myopathy but does reference CFS. It explains how coxsackie may persist (in a dsRNA form) "The mechanism of enterovirus replication is not completely understood, but it is possible that downregulation of RNA polymerase activity occurs in damaged myofibers through changes in cellular proteins that participate as elements of the viral replication complex, resulting in production of double-stranded persistent RNA. As a potent inducer of interferon and other cell mediators, double-stranded RNA may itself be pathogenic (25). Activation of interferon-inducible protein kinase has multiple effects on cellular proteins, which, in addition to inhibiting viral replication, include upregulating the transcription of cytokine genes through activation of NF?B. In virus-induced myopathies, tissue injury could result directly from inducible nitric oxide synthase produced by muscle or through production of cytokines and other mediators such as those that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of fatigue syndromes (20). Equivalent levels of plus and minus strands of enterovirus RNA have been observed in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (15), and what we have found in mouse muscle may now provide a basis for understanding the processes which are at work in human diseases (33). Whether pathogenicity in CIM is derived directly from the presence of viral RNA or requires some degree of translation is not known. The lack of deleterious mutations and the fact that all regions of the viral genome were amplified leaves open the possibility that under appropriate but as yet unknown conditions, persistent coxsackievirus RNA possesses the capacity to produce viral proteins or infectious virus, thereby promoting an ongoing immunopathic response in muscle. "