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Mesentery lymph system as a source to spread bacterial infection.

Discussion in 'Gastrointestinal and Urinary' started by kangaSue, Feb 17, 2017.

  1. kangaSue

    kangaSue Senior Member

    Brisbane, Australia
    Looking into the function of the mesentery after the recent interest in the media that this is now being considered as a new organ, there was something of interest in a paper that caught my attention.

    The digestive tract as the origin of systemic inflammation;
    [Many of these infections are initiated by translocation of intestinal bacteria and usually result in bacteremia and, in more severe cases, sepsis [42]. Bacterial translocation can be demonstrated by analysis of mesenteric lymphatics or portal vein blood samples. It is important to point out here that, in a classic study, portal vein sampling in trauma patients undergoing laparotomy did not provide evidence for bacterial translocation by blood cultures [43]. Subsequent studies with trauma patients confirmed that blood cultures generally failed to show bacterial growth [44, 45]. However, more sensitive methods, such as immunostaining for E. coli beta-galactosidase [44] or electron microscopy [45], provided direct evidence for bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) in most patients. While the presence of bacteria in MLNs as a pathological event has been debated [46, 47], multiple studies have shown that positive cultures from MLN samples obtained from laparotomy patients occurred in 10–15 % of patients, which correlated with an increased risk of postoperative sepsis [48, 49] or postoperative infection [50].]

    For the most part, research into this is only from the aspect of being critically ill and or post-injury or post-operative infection but I saw it mentioned in a paper by Maes that it also occurs in those with ME/CFS so it would be no surprise if it's found to happen in lesser manifestations of chronic illness involving gut dysfunction too.
    Increased bacterial translocation is also associated with the onset of ME/CFS [199]. Loosening of the gut barrier may allow poorly invasive Gram-negative bacteria to translocate from the gut into the mesenteric lymph nodes and sometimes into the blood stream. Once translocated, the LPS is recognized by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex, which primes immune cells and consequently activates inflammatory and Oxidative & Nitrosative Stress pathways [12, 199].
    A "clean case" of systemic injury; Mesenteric lymph after hemorrhagic shock elicits a sterile inflammatory response.
    [Post-injury multiple organ failure results from an inappropriate, overwhelming immune response to injury. During trauma and hemorrhagic shock (T/HS), mesenteric ischemia causes gut mucosal breakdown with disruption of the intestinal barrier. It has been proposed that this releases the gut microbiota systemically via post-shock mesenteric lymph, engendering infectious complications.]

    Anyone got any ideas on how this could be stopped from happening?
    Little Bluestem and ScottTriGuy like this.

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