A New Decade of ME Research: The 11th Invest in ME International ME Conference 2016
Mark Berry presents the first in a series of articles on the 11th Invest in ME International ME Conference in London ...
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Cyclic AMP, Adenosine and Inflammation

Discussion in 'Other Health News and Research' started by nanonug, Mar 29, 2018.

  1. nanonug

    nanonug Senior Member

    Virginia, USA
    Cyclic AMP Represents a Crucial Component of Treg Cell-Mediated Immune Regulation

    Extracellular Adenosine is Required to Limit a Potentially Self-Destructive Inflammatory Immune Response

    Inflammatory immune reactions are accompanied by the release of high amounts of ATP in the extracellular space where it is converted into AMP by CD39 and dephosphorylated to adenosine by CD73 (33). Adenosine has strong anti-inflammatory influence on immune cells preferentially by triggering A2A and A2B receptors leading to the generation of intracellular cAMP. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory action of adenosine is exploited by tumors where adenosine was shown to accumulate, thereby preventing immunological tumor regression (34, 35).
    COMMENT: Lately, I've been thinking a lot about cyclic AMP and I'm curious about what one may accomplish by artificially increasing its amount. One can so do easily with forskolin so I have embarked on a trial to see what happens. There are some unwanted side effects associated with indiscriminate increases of cyclic AMP so it's not risk-free. In particular, increases in heart rate are not to my liking. On the other hand, I'm looking forward to reduction of mast cell activation as a nice side effect.
    pattismith, sb4, Dmitri and 1 other person like this.
  2. NotThisGuy

    NotThisGuy Senior Member

    Inosine can increase intercellular cAMP as well and decrease inflammatory cytokines.


    But few members here mentioned it activated mast cells.....
    maybe other purines or RNA itself can have the same effect without activating mast cells?
    pattismith likes this.
  3. nanonug

    nanonug Senior Member

    Virginia, USA
    Yes, it is my understanding that inosine promotes mast cell degranulation. I am comfortable taking forskolin, though.
  4. nanonug

    nanonug Senior Member

    Virginia, USA

    I am currently taking ~50mg BID of forskolin. Because of a certain effect of forskolin, I know it's doing its thing (the water increase in the colon is very noticeable.)

    Forskolin works by upregulating the activity of adenylate cyclase. This enzymes converts ATP into cyclic AMP. Because of my "hypometabolism protocol", I expect that more ATP be available for conversion. I had used forskolin in the past but the effects are definitely much more pronounced this time.

    One of the consequences of increasing cytosolic levels of cAMP is that more AMP, and consequently more adenosine, is produced. Adenosine is known to be an anti-inflammatory "healing" molecule and this is definitely good. If I'm not mistaken, Naviaux et al found that adenosine levels are low in people with SEID so this is potentially good news. On the other hand, adenosine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS and I am definitely feeling that as well: I feel sleepier, and also more relaxed, than before. Considering that coffee competitively antagonizes adenosine, I've been drinking more of it during the day and it works. At night, I stopped melatonin for now and I've been sleeping quite well.
    Jackb23, sb4 and pamojja like this.
  5. wigglethemouse

    wigglethemouse Senior Member

    @nanonug What were your final conclusions on your self-experiment?

    I've just been reading that cAMP has an effect on carbohydrate metabolism (even including lipid metabolism).

    The Role of Cyclic AMP in the Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism
    pattismith and sb4 like this.
  6. Jackb23



    This is quite interesting to me as I noticed whenever I would drink coffee, within 30 minutes my brain mud much more foggy even though I had an increase in motivation.
  7. alex3619

    alex3619 Senior Member

    Logan, Queensland, Australia
    I considered forskolin in the 90s as my investigations suggested it even then. I rejected it on safety grounds. In recent years I have tried using resveratrol, a PDE4 inhibitor. It helped, but as my symptoms changed and not for the better after some years on it I am only using it when I really need it. It greatly assists with some of my breathing issues.

    In the short term I think resveratrol is likely to be helpful. In the long term we just don't know, particularly in ME.
  8. pattismith

    pattismith Senior Member

    @nanonug @NotThisGuy

    My experimentations with thyroid meds made me investigate TSH activity.
    I was initially interested in its action over intracellular calcium levels, but found it elevates intracellular cAMP (in some cells)

    Differential effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on intracellular free calcium and cAMP in cells transfected with the human TSH receptor.

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) binds to a receptor which activates adenylate cyclase and elevates cAMP concentration.

    However, TSH receptors are not present in all kind of cells...only thyroid cells and a few others

    Extrathyroidal expression of TSH receptor
    In recent years it has become evident that the TSH receptor is also expressed widely in a variety of extrathyroidal tissues including: anterior pituitary; hypothalamus; ovary; testis; skin; kidney; immune system; bone marrow and peripheral blood cells; white and brown adipose tissue; orbital preadipocyte fibroblasts and bone....

    4.2 Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    TSH receptors (TSHR) are present in B and T cells, NK cells, monocytes and at high levels in dendritic cells (DC). TSHR are not detectable on foetal and neonatal immune cells.
    TSH significantly stimulated IL-2 and IL-12, IL-1β responses and enhanced the phagocytic activity of DCs from adult animals, enhanced the proliferative response of murine spleen cells to IL-2, significantly increased IL-2 induced NK cell cytotoxicity and enhanced the expression of MHC-II by human thyroid epithelial cells [149,152-156].
    In bone marrow cells IL-6, IFNβ, TNFα, TNFβ, TGFβ2, and lymphotoxin-β responses were reproducibly induced by TSH [158]. Lymphocytes and monocytes synthesize TSH [149,158].

    Hello Jack, would you explain the link between cAMP and Coffee please?
    sb4 likes this.

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