http://thenewdaily.com.au/life/wellbeing/2017/04/24/cell-discovery-hope-ms-treatment/ A major new discovery has been made towards finding the cause of multiple sclerosis – potentially paving the way for new treatments. Scientists have found a new cellular mechanism which may cause the disease and a potential hallmark which could be a target for future treatment of the autoimmune disorder. Multiple sclerosis affects around 2.5 million people around the world. Typically, people are diagnosed in their 20s and 30s, and it is more common in women than men. Although the cause has so far been a mystery, the disease causes the body’s own immune system to attack myelin – the fatty “sheaths” which protect nerves in the brain and spinal cord. This leads to brain damage, a reduction in blood supply and oxygen and the formation of lesions in the body. Symptoms can be wide-ranging, and can include muscle spasms, mobility problems, pain, fatigue, and problems with speech. cientists have long suspected that mitochondria, the energy-creating “powerhouse” of the cell, plays a link in causing multiple sclerosis. Using human brain tissue samples, researchers at the Universities of Exeter and Alberta found a protein called Rab32 is present in large quantities in the brains of people with MS – but is virtually absent in healthy brain cells. Where Rab32 is present, the team discovered that a part of the cell which stores calcium gets too close to the mitochondria. The resulting miscommunication with the calcium supply triggers the mitochondria to misbehave, ultimately causing toxicity for brain cells in people with MS. Researchers do not yet know what causes an unwelcome influx of Rab32 but they believe the defect could originate at the base of the cell. The finding will enable scientists to search for effective treatments that target Rab32 and embark on determining whether there are other proteins which could pay a role in triggering MS. Professor Paul Eggleton, of the University of Exeter Medical School, said: “Multiple sclerosis can have a devastating impact on people’s lives, affecting mobility, speech, mental ability and more. “So far, all medicine can offer is treatment and therapy for the symptoms – as we do not yet know the precise causes, research has been limited. “Our exciting new findings have uncovered a new avenue for researchers to explore. It is a critical step, and in time, we hope it might lead to effective new treatments for MS.” The research is published in the journal Neuroinflammation.