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Arachidonic acid and other unsaturated FAs as endogenous antimicrobial molecules

Discussion in 'Other Health News and Research' started by Gondwanaland, Mar 13, 2018.

  1. Gondwanaland

    Gondwanaland Senior Member

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2090123218300018 (open access)
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  2. pattismith

    pattismith Senior Member

    very interesting, thank you for sharing!
  3. alex3619

    alex3619 Senior Member

    Logan, Queensland, Australia
    I was looking into this twenty five years ago, for about a decade. AA is potentially very inflammatory. It can drive many ME symptoms. There are indeed anti-microbial properties, but I think its far more inflammatory than helpful, and in part that is how it fights microbes. Its also the most likely substance that kills people during alcohol poisoning. Anti-microbial via inflammatory processes is problematic.

    Now series 3 eicosanoids, from EPA, have similar actions but are far less inflammatory. Indeed its because EFA results in less inflammatory eicosanoids, and competes with AA for eicosanoid synthesis, that its considered antiinflammatory. It isn't, its much less inflammatory than AA is how that works.

    Now there are antiinflammatory eicosanoids that can be produced too, and if we knew how to make them dominate we might have a useful tool. I don't think we do though.

    I was using AA and eicosonoid modulation as my main treatment modality through most of the 90s. I got worse in the long run, but it sometimes helps in the short run. Indeed, despite its inflammatory properties, if you have an active infection, not latent or recurring but acute, then evening primrose oil and fish oil might be beneficial in the short run.

    Check out this very old paper, from the doc who had his practice about five houses from me at the time - https://preview.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=gray martinovic eicosanoid CFS


    Med Hypotheses. 1994 Jul;43(1):31-42.
    Eicosanoids and essential fatty acid modulation in chronic disease and the chronic fatigue syndrome.
    Gray JB, Martinovic AM.
    Erratum in
    Med Hypotheses 1995 Aug;45(2):219.
    • Med Hypotheses 1995 Aug;45(2):219.
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  4. ChrisD

    ChrisD Senior Member

    East Sussex

    ''Populations who have had a primarily vegetarian diet for generations were found to be far more likely to carry DNA which makes them susceptible to inflammation.

    Scientists in the US believe that the mutation occured to make it easier for vegetarians to absorb essential fatty acids from plants.

    But it has the knock-on effect of boosting the production of arachidonic acid, which is linked to inflammatory disease and cancer. When coupled with a diet high in vegetable oils - such as sunflower oil - the mutated gene quickly turns fatty acids into dangerous arachidonic acid.''
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  5. alex3619

    alex3619 Senior Member

    Logan, Queensland, Australia
    Arachidonic acid is very dangerous. Its usually bound and then released as needed. If released it immediately leads to eicosanoid synthesis, and most of those are inflammatory. Its hormonal regulator is cortisol. Its utilisation is boosted by peroxynitrite, if I recall correctly.

    Even a fairly small amount of free arachidonic acid in the blood is lethal. When we release it we release very miniscule amounts. Alcohol causes a release of larger amounts, and blocking arachidonic acid metabolism can save some people from alcohol poisoning.

    Amongst other symptoms it causes headaches.

    I have not investigated a possible cancer link, but it is long known to be inflammatory.

    On the flip side its an essential fatty acid. Its needed to create an entire superfamily of critical hormones. If the quantity of omega-6 polyunsaturated fat in the diet is too low for too long the deficiency can be fatal. The key is in balance, and that is very hard to do.
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  6. sb4

    sb4 Senior Member

    United Kingdom
    Whilst this is interesting I would be cautious of implementing it. As many have posted in this thread including alexs very good posts, AA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 6 in particular) can have very negative effects on the body.

    They can increase prostaglandins. This may help kill viruses but its also very inflammatory and a trigger for mitosis.

    Oxidize easily. This obviously causes oxidative stress and depending on where it happens it can be big (mitochondria). This can also lead to Lipofuscin which is basically oxidized unsaturated fatty acids cross linked with metals and proteins of which there does seem to be no way for a cell to dispose of without mitosis or apoptosis.

    Increase membrane fluidity (useful for cancer). Having a rigid cell membrane full of saturated fats seems to resist mitosis/cancer fairly well, whereas when a cell divides it increases enzymes such as stearoyl coa desaturase which takes stearic/palmitic (saturated) and turns them into monosaturated versions which result in membrane fluidity and thus increase membrane size and allows cell to swell with water.

    Cause obesity and diabetes/etc. Peter @ hyperlipid did a great series on this. Basically it has a lower FADH2/NADH ratio, meaning it generates less super oxide through reverse electron flow in mitochondria, this generates less temporary insulin resistance meaning your fat cells pull in more nutrients from your blood than they would with the same amount of calories of SF. This lowers blood glucose geater that it would with SF and makes you more hungry. Do this enough and your fat cells become packed with fat and start to spill into blood, even when insulin is present. This leads to real insulin resistance and diabetes.

    I have read quite a few health gurus, forums, etc but the one thing I see most agreement on is the negative effects of polyunsaturated fats, particularly omega 6's.
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