Review: 'Through the Shadowlands’ describes Julie Rehmeyer's ME/CFS Odyssey
I should note at the outset that this review is based on an audio version of the galleys and the epilogue from the finished work. Julie Rehmeyer sent me the final version as a PDF, but for some reason my text to voice software (Kurzweil) had issues with it. I understand that it is...
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alpha GPC

Discussion in 'General Treatment' started by heapsreal, Nov 5, 2013.

  1. heapsreal

    heapsreal iherb 10% discount code OPA989,

    australia (brisbane)
    alpha GPC is a cholinergic supplement that can help increase acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter just like serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline.

    Cut and paste fo the function of Acetylcholine -

    Acetylcholine has functions both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and in the central nervous system (CNS) as a neuromodulator. Its receptors have very high binding constants.
    In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system.
    In the central nervous system, acetylcholine and the associated neurons form a neurotransmitter system, the cholinergic system, which tends to cause anti-excitatory actions.
    In the peripheral nervous system[edit]
    In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system. Acetylcholine binds to acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle fibers, it opens ligand-gated sodium channels in the cell membrane. Sodium ions then enter the muscle cell, initiating a sequence of steps that finally produce muscle contraction. Although acetylcholine induces contraction of skeletal muscle, it acts via a different type of receptor (muscarinic) to inhibit contraction of cardiac muscle fibers.
    In the autonomic nervous system, acetylcholine is released in the following sites:
    In the central nervous system, ACh has a variety of effects as a neuromodulator upon plasticity, arousal and reward. ACh has an important role in the enhancement of sensory perceptions when we wake up[2] and in sustaining attention.[3]
    Damage to the cholinergic (acetylcholine-producing) system in the brain has been shown to be plausibly associated with the memory deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease.[4] ACh has also been shown to promote REM sleep.[5]
    There are three ACh pathways in the CNS.[citation needed]
    • Pons to thalamus and cortex
    • Magnocellular forebrain nucleus to cortex
    • Septohippocampal
    Acetylcholine is a polyatomic cation. It and the associated neurons form a neurotransmitter system, the cholinergic system from the brainstem and basal forebrain that projects axons to many areas of the brain. In the brainstem it originates from the Pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus collectively known as the mesopontine tegmentum area or pontomesencephalotegmental complex.[6][7] In the basal forebrain, it originates from the basal optic nucleus of Meynert and medial septal nucleus:
    In addition, ACh acts as an important "internal" transmitter in the striatum, which is part of the basal ganglia. It is released by cholinergic interneurons. In humans, non-human primates and rodents, these interneurons respond to salient environmental stimuli with stereotyped responses that are temporally aligned with the responses of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra.[8][9]
    Excitability and inhibition[edit]

    Acetylcholine also has other effects on neurons. One effect is to cause a slow depolarization[citation needed] by blocking a tonically active K+ current, which increases neuronal excitability. In alternative fashion, acetylcholine can activate non-specific cation conductances to directly excite neurons.[10] An effect upon postsynaptic M4-muscarinic ACh receptors is to open inward-rectifier potassium ion channel (Kir) and cause inhibition.[11] The influence of acetylcholine on specific neuron types can be dependent upon the duration of cholinergic stimulation. For instance, transient exposure to acetylcholine (up to several seconds) can inhibit cortical pyramidal neurons via M1 type muscarinic receptors that are linked to Gq-type G-protein alpha subunits. M1 receptor activation can induce calcium-release from intracellular stores, which then activate a calcium-activated potassium conductance, which inhibits pyramidal neuron firing.[12] On the other hand, tonic M1 receptor activation is strongly excitatory. Thus, ACh acting at one type of receptor can have multiple effects on the same postsynaptic neuron, depending on the duration of receptor activation.[13] Recent experiments in behaving animals have demonstrated that cortical neurons indeed experience both transient and persistent changes in local acetylcholine levels during cue-detection behaviors.[14]
    In the cerebral cortex, tonic ACh inhibits layer 4 medium spiny neurons, the main targets of thalamocortical inputs while exciting pyramidal cells in layers 2/3 and layer 5.[11] This filters out weak sensory inputs in layer 4 and amplifies inputs that reach the layers 2/3 and layer L5 excitatory microcircuits. As a result, these layer-specific effects of ACh might function to improve the signal noise ratio of cortical processing.[11] At the same time, acetylcholine acts through nicotinic receptors to excite certain groups of inhibitory interneurons in the cortex, which further dampen down cortical activity.[15]
    Role in decision making[edit]
    One well-supported function of acetylcholine (ACh) in cortex is increased responsiveness to sensory stimuli, a form of attention. Phasic increases of ACh during visual,[16] auditory [17] and somatosensory [18] stimulus presentations have been found to increase the firing rate of neurons in the corresponding primary sensory cortices. When cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain are lesioned, animals' ability to detect visual signals was robustly and persistently impaired.[19] In that same study, animals' ability to correctly reject non-target trials was not impaired, further supporting the interpretation that phasic ACh facilitates responsiveness to stimuli. Looking at ACh's effect on thalamocortical connections, a known pathway of sensory information, in vitro application of cholinergic agonist carbachol to mouse auditory cortex enhanced thalamocortical activity.[20] In addition, Gil et al. (1997) applied a different cholinergic agonist, nicotine, and found that activity was enhanced at thalamocortical synapses.[21] This finding provides further evidence for a facilitative role of ACh in transmission of sensory information from the thalamus to selective regions of cortex.
    An additional suggested function of ACh in cortex is suppression of intracortical information transmission. Gil et al. (1997) applied the cholinergic agonist muscarine to neocortical layers and found that excitatory post-synaptic potentials between intracortical synapses were depressed.[21] In vitro application of cholinergic agonist carbachol to mouse auditory cortex suppressed intracortical activity as well.[20] Optical recording with a voltage-sensitive dye in rat visual cortical slices demonstrated significant suppression in intracortical spread of excitement in the presence of ACh.[22]
    Some forms of learning and plasticity in cortex appear dependent on the presence of acetylcholine. Bear et al. (1986) found that the typical synaptic remapping in striate cortex that occurs during monocular deprivation is reduced when there is a depletion of cholinergic projections to that region of cortex.[23] Kilgard et al. (1998) found that repeated stimulation of the basal forebrain, a primary source of ACh neurons, paired with presentation of a tone at a specific frequency, resulted in remapping of the auditory cortex to better suit processing of that tone.[24] Baskerville et al. (1996) investigated the role of ACh in experience-dependent plasticity by depleting cholinergic inputs to the barrel cortex of rats.[25] The cholinergic-depleted animals had a significantly reduced amount of whisker-pairing plasticity. Apart from the cortical areas, Crespo et al. (2006) found that the activation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the nucleus accumbens is necessary for the acquisition of an appetitive task.[26]
    ACh has been implicated in the reporting of expected uncertainty in the environment [27] based both on the suggested functions listed above and results recorded while subjects perform a behavioral cuing task. Reaction time difference between correctly cued trials and incorrectly cued trials, called the cue validity, was found to vary inversely with ACh levels in primates with pharmacologically (e.g. Witte et al., 1997) and surgically (e.g. Voytko et al., 1994) altered levels of ACh.[28][29] The result was also found in Alzheimer's disease patients (Parasuraman et al., 1992) and smokers after nicotine (an ACh agonist) consumption.[30][31] The inverse covariance is consistent with the interpretation of ACh as representing expected uncertainty in the environment, further supporting this claim.
  2. heapsreal

    heapsreal iherb 10% discount code OPA989,

    australia (brisbane)
    There are different cholinergic supplements but alpha GPC is one that is said to be better absorbed and better at helping increase acetylcholine.

    I recently used alpha GPC for a month and noticed it had slight energy increasing effects, maybe more awareness. The big thing i noticed was improvement in my memory.

    I have a hard time remembering names and numbers for codes etc. for work i have atleast 5 different codes i have to use for doors, cabinets etc and im always getting them mixed up or just plain cant recall the dam thing. These codes to get changed but probably minimum of a year, so i have 12 months to remember them and its a struggle. I have a note book in my pocket with all these codes which im always referring too. Now names are terrible and embarrassing when u cant remember, i get away with it by calling people mate, lucky im in australia. Even people i have worked closely with for several months and then later on i meet up with them at work and just cant recall their names, generally an hour or so it comes to me or even the next day. Almost like my brain is like a computer that keeps freezing up, sometimes i just cant recall the information i need.

    The strange thing is i can generally describe very well how something works but just cant recall the name of the dam thing. ALot of the times if i cant recall the name of something i will describe to the person how something works etc and then they will say, oh you mean so and so, and they tell me the name.

    So im getting off the track, but after using this alpha gpc for a month i noticed i was remembering these codes alot easier, as well as names, i still got caught out with names but its more like a 15 sec delay rather then a 24hr delay to recall names.

    I was initially going to use alpha gpc with nootropics like aniracetam/periracetam etc but the effects on there own i think are good enough. i may add the racetams later but?? I have used racetams in the past and they are hit and miss for me where the alpha gpc was slow and steady with noticeable effects after a week or so.

    So i think it helps turn on brain function with some gentle stimulation, maybe how a brain is suppose to work?? Some substances said to improve brain function are just stimulants but acetylcholine i think is different.

    I havent used any alpha gpc for a couple of weeks and still noticing good effects with memory although its starting to wear off. I have more on the way. I was taking 2 x 300mg caps a day which was recommended on the bottle. Is relatively expensive for a supp but if one buys bulk powders and caps there own then its quite cheap.

    Beyond likes this.
  3. heapsreal

    heapsreal iherb 10% discount code OPA989,

    australia (brisbane)
    Another cut and paste job on alpha gpc

    Anyone who is interested in improving their mental cognition, concentration or memory would do well to begin supplementing their diets with Alpha GPC. Even if you are just interested in performing normal tasks with greater fluidity and ease, this will be of help to you. Athletes interested in getting that extra boost from their training programs[​IMG] will see positive results as well, even skill related athletes only interested in improving their coordination and balance.

    What is Alpha GPC Powder?
    Alpha GPC, also short for Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline, is a phospholipid that is found naturally in the human body. This substance is water soluble and considered a metabolite. It is also a source of Choline for acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis [3]. It is able to cross the blood brain barrier in order to deliver this vital substance. Additionally, this supplement[​IMG] is derived from highly purified sources of soy lecithin.
    Another interesting fact about this supplement[​IMG] is that it is also considered to be a neurotransmitter. As a precursor to membrane phospholipids, it helps to improve the signal transmission between neurons.
    What are Alpha GPC Benefits?
    Most of the benefits of Alpha GPC powder revolve around enhanced cognition. Many users (especially older people) report an enhanced mental focus, along with increased memory. You may even notice an improvement in your ability to concentrate, focus and think more clearly. Being able to perform daily tasks with more fluidity and ease is also a reported benefit of Alpha GPC [2].
    Some of the brain chemicals affected by this supplement may influence mood and movement. This can lead to an increase in the development of strength from intense workouts and training programs[​IMG]. There is also some research to support the idea that Alpha GPC may help to stimulate the release of Human Growth Hormone (HGH). It has also been known to help promote mild feelings of relaxation and enhanced mood. With more skill related training, users can notice an improvement in their balance and coordination [1].
    It is also thought that this supplement is beneficial for liver function[​IMG]. Essentially, Choline is produced in the liver. As Alpha GPC helps to stimulate this production within the liver, the entire function of the organ is improved. It is better able to help filter out possible toxins and repair damage caused by many different types of poisons. This also includes fighting against increased fat build up within the liver [4].
    Alpha GPC Dosage
    The recommended dosage of Alpha GPC is 250-500 mg daily. This can be taken all at once, or in evenly divided administrations throughout the day. As always, start out with the lowest effective dose needed and only increase once tolerance levels have been determined
    maryb, Sea and Little Bluestem like this.
  4. helen1

    helen1 Senior Member

    @heapspreal, how is alpha gpc different from phosophtadyl choline?
  5. heapsreal

    heapsreal iherb 10% discount code OPA989,

    australia (brisbane)
    I think many of these cholinergic supplement come down to personal preference, they say alpha gpc is better absorbed and increases acetylcholine better then most cholenergics. centrophenoxine is another that helps boost neurotransmitters etc and suppose to be one of the better cholenergics but for me i didnt get much out of it.

    I havent tried phosphatidyl choline, how have you found this helpful helen1? do u use any other nootropics with it?

  6. undcvr

    undcvr Senior Member

    SWIM happens to like Citicholine. He says he takes it every morning and does feel nootropic effects from it. SWIM also likes Lucidril (centrophenoxine).
    heapsreal likes this.
  7. perchance dreamer

    perchance dreamer Senior Member

    Heaps, a good way to try phosphatidyl choline is through lecithin. I use Bluebonnet Lecithin Granules. I like it because it's non-GMO, the granules allow flexibility in dosing, and it's SO economical.

    When I first got it, I took the 1 TBS, which is the suggested dose. I got some increased mood, but mostly greatly increased energy.

    My system is very sensitive, and I couldn't sleep although I took it with breakfast in the morning. I've had to back way down, but I think I'm an unusual case. I have been able to increase lecithin some since taking beta glucan.

    Lecithin is food, so you can cook with it. I add it to eggs or oatmeal in the morning.

    Even though it's commonly derived from soy, it's from the oil, not the protein, so you don't get the phytoestrogen effect. I avoid soy generally except for this product.

    I had tried the Alpha GPC and did feel it helped mental functioning. However, it was bad for my sleep.
    WoolPippi and heapsreal like this.
  8. heapsreal

    heapsreal iherb 10% discount code OPA989,

    australia (brisbane)
    cdp choline is on my list to try, centrophenoxine i have used but didnt get much out of it.

    I have thought about the lecithin as its cheap but just general research on the internet generally says the other sources are better absorbed??? maybe i should give it a try also.

    I have used DMAE in the past and felt nothing from it, maybe its a personal thing on which choline sources are helpful??

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