The Role of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Candida albicans Infections. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4931385/ Phagocytes use pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), like Dectin-1, to recognize fungi. TLR and CLR signaling triggers the phagocytic machinery and production of inflammatory cytokines and intercellular signaling molecules, which direct an immune response to the site of infection [3,4]. Each type of PRR recognizes conserved molecular motifs called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that distinguish the pathogen from the host Recently, autophagy has been linked to host defense against bacterial and fungal organisms . Autophagy is a physiological cellular process whereby intracellular components undergo lysosomal degradation and recycling. Historically, autophagy has been recognized as playing an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis and cell metabolism; it provides nutrients during periods of starvation and removes aged or damaged organelles from the cytoplasm. However, an increasing number of reports demonstrate that autophagic proteins have a significant role in defense against fungal pathogens including C. albicans [6,7,8,9,10], Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) [11,12,13,14], and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) . Nature. 2011 Jan 20;469(7330):323-35. doi: 10.1038/nature09782. Autophagy in immunity and inflammation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131688/ ya, important new info.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!