Fixing Leaky Gut Helps ME/CFS, and Sometimes Achieves Full Remission:: In one patient with CFS, treatment with antioxidants and a leaky gut diet decreased the the leakage of the LPS endotoxin from Gram negative Enterobacteria in the gut, and this was accompanied by a complete remission of the CFS symptoms (1). See also this study: Normalization of leaky gut in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is accompanied by a clinical improvement: effects of age, duration of illness and the translocation of LPS from gram-negative bacteria (1). Leaky gut involves a dysfunction of the tight junctions that bind together the cells in the inner lining of the gut. Leaky gut can lead to LPS endotoxin leaking from the intestine into the liver and general circulation where this LPS may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs (1). Some Factors That Cause Leaky Gut: Micro-organisms in the gut increase intestinal permeability (1). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria increases intestinal permeability (1). Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin increases small intestinal permeability in mice and rats (1). Clostridium difficile toxin A increases intestinal permeability (1). Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria disrupt the tight junction barrier function and structure in vivo (1). Cytomegalovirus can cause increased intestinal permeability (1). Mycotoxin ochratoxin A, that can contaminate cereals and animal feed, alters intestinal barrier function (1). Blastocystis hominis a protozoan parasite can cause increased intestinal permeability (1). IL-1beta causes an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability (1). Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAIDs) increase intestinal permeability (1). NSAIDs compromise intestinal permeability in IBS patients to a greater extent than in healthy subjects (1). Capsaicin from chili peppers increases leaky gut (1). Solanaceae spices (paprika, cayenne pepper) increase gut permeability (1). Lectins from beans and vegetables can increase leaky gut; though interestingly, sucrose co-administration reduces the toxic effect of lectin on gut permeability and intestinal bacterial colonization. (1). Supplements That Fix A Leaky Gut: Saccharomyces boulardii Preserves the Barrier Function and Modulates the Signal Transduction Pathway Induced in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli-Infected T84 Cells (1). Zinc carnosine supplement helps prevent leaky gut occurring (1). Triphala herbal formula (especially the Emblica officinalis component, aka "Indian gooseberry") protects against methotrexate-induced intestinal permeability in rat intestine (1). Glutamine supplementation decreases intestinal permeability and preserves gut mucosa integrity in an experimental mouse model (1). Curcumin may help decrease intestinal permeability, and may work well with glutamine (1). Probiotic bacteria might be beneficial in protecting intestinal epithelial cells from the deleterious effects of pathogenic bacteria (1). Slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva) may help reduce intestinal permeability (1). Berberine attenuates disruption of tight junctions in intestinal epithelium in a mice model of endotoxinemia. This may possibly have been mediated through down-regulation of NF-kB and myosin light chain kinase pathway (1).