[Twitter] T cell exhaustion in long covid and ME? Anthony Leonardo May 2022


Senior Member
United Kingdom

I'm posting this becuase it made me wonder could ME patients be stuck in a perm state of t cell exhaustion (amongst other disease Verticals) causing them to constnalt end up in a t cell exhausted state which takes days weeks or months to bottom out of due to herpes and other infectious reactivations?

That doesn't include severe patients where they'd be stuck in the exhausted state.

Or LC patients who are obviously suffering from herpes and covid infections. Two new studies today show LC patients still have herpes reactivation of various herpes viruses. And tons of LC patients on twitter suffering reacivation of all symptkms or positive lft after stopping Paxvaloid.

Just a theory while I was reading. These studies are fascinating. Not least because there reproducing the studies ME have done for decades.

SNT Gatchaman

Senior Member
New Zealand
From the Defining ‘T cell exhaustion’ (Nature, 2019) —

It is important to start off by stating that the term ‘T cell exhaustion’ is a basket term that describes various distinct epigenetic and metabolic states of post-thymic T cells.

The term ‘exhaustion’ is used mainly to refer to effector T cells with a reduced capacity to secrete cytokines and increased expression of inhibitory receptors. These cells were thought to be hypofunctional effector T cells that differentiate from normal effector T cells in response to a chronically high antigen load. However, several observations have challenged this view and suggest that exhausted T cells are heterogeneous, have crucial roles in limiting viral infection or tumour growth and may develop independently from normal effector T cells

When an infection cannot be cleared by the host, a détente can occur whereby pathogen- specific T cells curtail their antipathogen function to avoid causing damage to normal tissues. Importantly, T cell exhaustion does not involve the complete absence of function: exhausted T cells can proliferate in vivo, produce effector molecules, including inflammatory cytokines and granzymes, and exert some control over pathogens or tumours

exhaustion is often seen as a dysfunctional state, it also allows T cells to persist and partially contain chronic infections without causing immunopathology.


Senior Member
Ccl4 is important for TCell functioning and is Ace2 dependent. I‘m not a fan of Bruce Paterson, but his analysis showed low ccl4 for long haulers, which is a sign of an immune deficit. This can be directly related to ace2 being attacked by covid. Saw this video where Dr. Leo Galland talks about it around 2:48:00: