Twenty-two consecutive patients suffering from refractory myalgic encephalitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) were treated with an innovative nutriceutical containing sodium dichloroacetate in a proof-of-principle, pilot, open-label prospective cohort trial. Ten patients experienced significant improvement of their health condition with reduction to almost half of their score in the fatigue severity scale. In twelve patients treatment failed to exert any beneficial effect. In the latter patients several other diseases have commonly been revealed by extensive biological and imaging investigations. These preliminary findings sustain the hypothetical role of mitochondrial hypo-metabolism due to inhibition of the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase in the pathogenesis of primary ME/CFS, and suggest a possible benefit of nutriceutical treatment by sodium dichloroacetate.