Total glucosides of paeony/peony: A review of its phytochemistry, role in autoimmune diseases

pattismith

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@andyguitar

Total glucosides of paeony: A review of its phytochemistry, role in autoimmune diseases, and mechanisms of action

lHuajuanJiangaJieLiaLinWangaShengjuWangaXinNieaYiChenaQiangFubMaoyuanJiangaChaomeiFuaYaoHea

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112913Get rights and content

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance

Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA), called baishao in China), the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., has shown a rich medicinal value for more than 2000 years.

PRA is used in local medicine and traditional medicine for autoimmune diseases associated with inflammation.

At present, total glucosides of paeony (TGP), the main active ingredient of PRA, has been developed into a preparation for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, as TGP exhibits the effect of regulating immunity, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects.
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Results

Approximately 15 compounds have been identified in TGP, of which paeoniflorin and albiflorin are the most common constituents.

In recent years, studies have found that TGP and its main chemical components are effective in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, oral lichen planus, and Sjogren's syndrome.

TGP has a variety of pharmacological effects related to PRA traditional effects, including anti-organ-damage, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, cardiovascular, and nervous-system protection.


Previously published reports on TGP treatment of autoimmune diseases have shown that TGP regulates intracellular pathways, such as the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways.

However, there is no standardized preparation method for TGP, and there is insufficient quality control of formulations.

Many related pharmacological studies have not tested TGP components, and the validity of such pharmacological results requires further verification.

Conclusions

Modern pharmacological research on TGP is based on the traditional usage of PRA, and its folk medicinal value in the treatment of autoimmune diseases has now been verified.

In particular, TGP has been developed into a formulation used clinically for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

The combination of TGP capsules and chemicals to treat autoimmune diseases has the effect of increasing efficacy and reducing toxicity.

Based on further research on its preparation, quality control, and mechanisms of action, TGP is expected to eventually play a greater role in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
 

pattismith

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@ljimbo423


Paeoniflorin modulates gut microbial production of indole-3-lactate and epithelial autophagy to alleviate colitis in mice

Author links open overlay panelQilinFanab1XiaojingGuana1YuanlongHouaYaliLiuaWeiWeiaXiaoyingCaiaYouyingZhangaGuangjiWangaXiaoZhengaHaipingHaoa

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153345Get rights and content

Highlights


The immunoregulatory effects of TGP in colitis mice are transmissible via gut microbiota.

TGP and paeoniflorin reduce microbial production of indole-3-lactate (ILA).

ILA inhibits epithelial autophagy and compromises the protective effect of TGP.

Abstract

Background
Total glucosides of peony (TGP), extracted from the root and rhizome of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has well-confirmed immunomodulatory efficacy in the clinic. However, the mechanism and active ingredients remain largely unclear.

Hypothesis/Purpose
Our previous study revealed a low systemic exposure but predominant gut distribution of TGP components. The aim of this study was to investigate involvement of the gut microbiota in the immunoregulatory effects and identify the active component.

Methods
Mice received 3% DSS to establish a model of colitis. The treatment group received TGP or single paeoniflorin (PF) or albiflorin (AF). Body weight, colon length, inflammatory and histological changes were assessed. Gut microbiota structure was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing. Antibiotic treatment and fecal transplantation were used to explore the involvement of gut microbiota. Metabolomic assay of host and microbial metabolites in colon was performed.

Results
TGP improved colonic injury and gut microbial dysbiosis in colitis mice, and PF was responsible for the protective effects. Fecal microbiota transfer from TGP-treated mice conferred resilience to colitis, while antibiotic treatment abrogated the protective effects. Both TGP and PF decreased colonic indole-3-lactate (ILA), a microbial tryptophan metabolite. ILA was further identified as an inhibitor of epithelial autophagy and ILA supplementation compromised the benefits of TGP.

Conclusion
Our findings suggest that TGP acts in part through a gut microbiota-ILA-epithelial autophagy axis to alleviate colitis.
 

pattismith

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Paeoniflorin ameliorates antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia in rats by attenuating impairment of the dopamine D2 receptor and TGF-β1 signaling pathways in the hypothalamus and pituitary

XiaoqianHuanga1LiyingRena1LianbingHouaHuaFanaChengliangWangaChunxiaWangabYuhaoLiac

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112862Get rights and content

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance
Paeoniflorin, a prominent component in some Chinese formulas for hyperprolactinemia-associated disorders, has been found to inhibit prolactin secretion in prolactinoma cells.

Aim
To examine the efficacy of paeoniflorin on hyperprolactinemia and the underlying mechanisms of action.

Materials and methods
Hyperprolactinemia in female rats was generated by administration of olanzapine (5 mg/kg, by a gavage method, once daily, × 13 weeks). The rats were co-treated with paeoniflorin (10 and 50 mg/kg). Prolactin and TGF-β1 concentrations were detected by ELISA. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. The effect in MMQ cells was also examined.

Results
Paeoniflorin inhibited olanzapine-induced increases in plasma prolactin concentration and prolactin protein overexpression in the pituitary and hypothalamus of rats.
Further, paeoniflorin restored olanzapine-induced downregulation of pituitary and hypothalamic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) protein expression.

More importantly, paeoniflorin attenuated olanzapine-suppressed protein expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and its downstream genes, type II TGF-β receptor, type I TGF-β receptor and phosphorylated SMAD3 in the tissues.

However, paeoniflorin did not affect plasma TGF-β1 concentration and hepatic TGF-β1 protein expression. In accord, olanzapine-induced increase in prolactin concentration, upregulation of prolactin protein expression, and downregulation of protein expression of the D2R and TGF-β1 signals in MMQ cells were attenuated.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates that paeoniflorin ameliorates olanzapine-induced hyperprolactinemia in rats by attenuating impairment of the D2R and TGF-β1 signaling pathways in the hypothalamus and pituitary.

Our findings may provide evidence to support the use of paeoniflorin-contained Chinese herbs and formulas for hyperprolactinemia and its associated disorders.
 

Wishful

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If I still had some peonies I might try some, after checking whether it was safe to eat roots or make tea from them. I've tried other things in my forest. However, I don't feel the need to buy some immediately at whatever the price.

Dandelion roots (roasted) tasted okay as coffee. I *think* there was a slight reduction in brainfog the first few times, but stopped working later.
 

pattismith

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A good find @pattismith very interesting!
I think you already mentioned peony somewhere so tagged you :thumbsup:

Peony seems to be commonly used in association with other drugs for auto-immune/auto-inflammatory diseases, chinese doctors say:
"Currently, TGP is used for the treatment of RA, SLE and other AutoImmuneDs in more than 1000 hospitals in China, which obtained great social and economic benefits. "


I have a very bad flare of auto-immunity/auto-inflammation since november caused by the flu vaccine, so I'm desperate to try any herbal remedy that could help!
NSAI were efficient but my kidneys seem not to tolerate it anymore, and I can't tolerate corticosteroids any longer, so herbal remedies are my new hope.
 
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