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Risk of autoimmune diseases following COVID-19 and the potential protective effect from vaccination: a population-based cohort study

SWAlexander

Senior Member
Messages
1,962

Findings​

The study included 1,028,721 COVID-19 and 3,168,467 non-COVID individuals. Compared with non-COVID controls, patients with COVID-19 presented an increased risk of developing pernicious anaemia [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 1.72; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.12–2.64]; spondyloarthritis [aHR: 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03–1.69)]; rheumatoid arthritis [aHR: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.09–1.54)]; other autoimmune arthritis [aHR: 1.43 (95% CI: 1.33–1.54)]; psoriasis [aHR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.13–1.78)]; pemphigoid [aHR: 2.39 (95% CI: 1.83–3.11)]; Graves' disease [aHR: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.10–1.54)]; anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome [aHR: 2.12 (95% CI: 1.47–3.05)]; immune mediated thrombocytopenia [aHR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.82–2.43)]; multiple sclerosis [aHR: 2.66 (95% CI: 1.17–6.05)]; vasculitis [aHR: 1.46 (95% CI: 1.04–2.04)]. Among COVID-19 patients, completion of two doses of COVID-19 vaccine shows a decreased risk of pemphigoid, Graves' disease, anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune arthritis.
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS2589-5370(23)00331-0/fulltext
 

pattismith

Senior Member
Messages
3,968
This means to me that the risk of autoimmune disease is minimal if you just don't vaccine and don't catch the virus....

The risk of autoimmune disease if you catch the virus and take Paxlovid has not been evaluated yet otherwise...
 
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pattismith

Senior Member
Messages
3,968
I found some scarce articles about the effect of Covid and vaccine on Behcet Disease...

Behcet Disease is an inflammatory disease with associated vasculitis.
I wonder if long covid might just be an underdiagnosed Behcet Disease with atypical clinical presentation

Out of a total 648 BD patients, 59 were detected to have a positive PCR test......32.2% of BD patients suffered from exacerbation of at least one symptom related to BD.


We highlight the case of a 35-year-old woman with pre-existing Behçet’s disease in remission on colchicine presenting with new onset erythema nodosum-like lesions on her right shin being diagnosed with coronavirus disease infection a few days after. Despite treatment with systemic corticosteroid, the lesions did not resolve, necessitating the initiation of anti-interleukin-6 therapy.


Results: In all, 287 patients received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Of the total number of COVID-19 vaccines (n = 639), 379 (59%) were Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines and 257 (41%) were CoronaVac vaccines.
The number of side-effects after first, second, third and fourth vaccine doses were 151 (52.6%), 135 (49.4%), 29 (42.6%), and 3 (30%), respectively.
BS exacerbation after first, second, third, and fourth vaccine doses were 151 (52.6%), 135 (49.4%), 16 (23.5%), and 3 (30%), respectively.
Injection site pain/swelling was the most common side-effect at all vaccine doses followed by fatigue and arthralgia.

Conclusion:
COVID-19 vaccines are well tolerated in patients with BS, and more side-effects develop after mRNA vaccines.
Regardless of the vaccine type, exacerbations after the COVID-19 vaccine are common, predominantly mucocutaneous and articular involvement, and exacerbations in the form of other organ involvement are rare.


COVID-19 in patients with Behçet's disease: Outcomes and rate of Behçet's exacerbations in a retrospective cohort

Erythema nodosum in Behçet’s disease in remission: Think COVID-19?

Effects of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on safety and disease exacerbation in patients with Behçet syndrome in a monocentric cohort


some others:

Neutrophilic Pustular Eruption with Behcet’s Like Illness Post Covid-19 Vaccination


Ocular Presentation of Behcet’s Syndrome Associated with Covid-19 Vaccination
 
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SWAlexander

Senior Member
Messages
1,962
Secondary Vasculitis Attributable to Post-COVID Syndrome
https://www.cureus.com/articles/153101-secondary-vasculitis-attributable-to-post-covid-syndrome#!/

After reading this publication and being diagnosed with APS I searched for a connection to Vasculitis
Here's a summary of how APS is related to inflammation of blood vessels:
  1. Thrombosis: One of the primary manifestations of APS is thrombosis, which is the formation of abnormal blood clots in veins and arteries. These clots can obstruct blood flow and cause inflammation in the blood vessels. The inflammation occurs as the body responds to the presence of clots and damaged vessel walls.
  2. Vasculitis: In some cases, APS can lead to vasculitis, which is the inflammation of blood vessel walls. This can occur when the immune system, triggered by antiphospholipid antibodies, attacks the blood vessel walls, causing inflammation. Vasculitis in APS can affect various types of blood vessels, including small and large arteries and veins.
  3. Skin Manifestations: APS-related vasculitis can result in skin symptoms such as livedo reticularis (a mottled, net-like pattern on the skin) and skin ulcers, which are a result of blood vessel inflammation.

 

Guwop2

Senior Member
Messages
252
I cant currently read or concentrate enough to go through all this, but basically my ME/CFS symptoms went from moderate to severe as a direct consequence of taking the AztraZenica vaccine. What tests should I have done to check if any of the above things you list are what is causing the issues, and are there treatments available for me if it turns out that the inflammation is caused by the above things (VITT)?
 

Guwop2

Senior Member
Messages
252
Reading a little about Vasculitis made me think perhaps my worsening fatigue and the occurence of a different type of PEM (different than my normal M.E/CFS PEM prio to AZ) may be a consequence of the vaccine. Prior to getting AZ I was able to excercise (running, calesthenics), but after AZ any physical activity that requires the concentration of energy through exertion, causes a weaking of muscles and myalgic pain all over. As an example, I find that i can walk and increase my pace up to a certain point, but if I broke into a run that type of exertion (like doing dead lifts or pull ups) would cause this kind of physical seizure of pain all over - very similar to the PEM i could get before, but different enough for it be noticeable. Whereas with PEM prior to the vaccine I could recover after a 5-6 months (at the very most), ive never recovered from AZ, my tolerences for exertion remain extremely low.
 
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