new publication from dong % silverman

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J Virol. 2009 Nov 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Androgen Stimulates Transcription and Replication of XMRV (Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus).

Dong B, Silverman RH.

Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195.

XMRV is a gammaretrovirus originally identified in a subset of prostate cancer patients. Because androgens stimulate prostate tumors and some retroviruses, we investigated effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on XMRV transcription and replication. Transcription from the XMRV U3 region was stimulated up to 2-fold by DHT, but only in cells containing a functional androgen receptor. Mutations in the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) of XMRV impaired basal transcription and androgen responsiveness. Furthermore, DHT stimulated XMRV replication by 3-fold, whereas androgen inhibitors (casodex and flutamide) suppressed viral growth up to 3-fold. Findings suggest that integration of the XMRV LTR into host DNA could impart androgen stimulation on cellular genes.

PMID: 19906923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
 
K

_Kim_

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Excerpts from full text

Note: WPI study is cited in the 2nd sentence of the article!!

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is an infectious gammaretrovirus identified in tumor-bearing prostates of men homozygous for a reduced activity variant of the antiviral enzyme RNase L(8, 19). More recently, XMRV has also been detected in 67% of chronic fatigue syndrome patients and 3.7% of normal health control individuals(13). A genome-wide analysis of XMRV integration sites in a prostate cancer cell line and in human prostate cancer tissues revealed a preference for transcription start sites, CpG islands, DNase-hypersensitive sites and high gene density regions(10). Furthermore, XMRV integration sites in human prostate DNA showed a preference for cancer-related genes and breakpoints, common fragile sites, and microRNA genes. Those findings suggested that XMRV integration might cause dysregulation of select host genes possibly contributing to oncogenesis. In addition, multiple XMRV proviruses were recently identified in human 22Rv1 prostate carcinoma cells, suggesting a role for viral integration in carcinogenesis(11).
Transcription of the XMRV genome is mediated by elements in the U3 region of the 5-long terminal repeat (LTR), a 390 nt segment that includes the core promoter and enhancers (Fig. 1A). Many retroviruses contain glucocorticoid response element(s) (GRE) in the U3 region, including XMRV and other gammaretroviruses such as Moloney MLV (Mo-MLV) and Friend murine leukemia (F-MLV) as well as the betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)(2, 3, 17, 19)(Fig. 1B). Viral GREs are stimulated in response to various steroids, including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, progesterone and androgen(1, 4, 5, 7, 14). Viral GREs often have homology to the classical androgen response element (ARE), a binding site for dimers of the androgen receptor (AR) that consists of an inverted 6 bp repeat separated by a 3 bp spacer (Fig.1B)(16). There is homology between these viral GREs and AREs in some mammalian genes. For example, the first inverted repeat, positions -7 to -2 (AGAACA), in the XMRV GRE is identical to the prostate specific antigen (PSA) ARE1(6).
Our findings show the presence of a functional androgen response element (ARE) in the U3 region of the XMRV LTR. The XMRV ARE sequence (AGAACAGATGGTCCT) is conserved among different XMRV strains(19). Inhibition of XMRV replication by antiandrogens suggests that viral growth could also be suppressed in XMRV-infected prostate cancer patients during androgen ablation therapy. Recently, we reported that XMRV integration sites in human prostate tumors include many cancer-related genes(8, 10). XMRV has a strong preference for integrating near transcriptional start sites possibly imposing androgen responsiveness on host genes. XMRV has been observed in both prostatic stromal (19) and epithelial carcinoma cells(11, 15). Therefore, XMRV integration into stromal and epithelial cells could cause androgen-stimulation of proinflammatory genes and proto-oncogenes leading to cancer. In addition, because the androgen receptor is expressed in prostatic cells these findings could also help to explain why XMRV infections localize to prostate.
 

Alice Band

PWME - ME by Ramsay
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I wonder if this explains why women with PCOS & CFS seem to go together in some women

<snip from PCOS description>

Another cardinal feature of PCOS is increased androgen (male hormone) production. Therefore, women with PCOS almost always have facial hirsutism (excessive hair) and frequently have acne as well.
 

Advocate

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Note: WPI study is cited in the 2nd sentence of the article!!
Hi Kim,

I couldn't find the full text anywhere. Where did you get it? Did they cite the Mikovits article in the references at the end?


Hi Eric,

It would be wonderful if you (or anyone) would explain in detail how they did this in the lab.
 
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Hi Kim,

I couldn't find the full text anywhere. Where did you get it? Did they cite the Mikovits article in the references at the end?


Hi Eric,

It would be wonderful if you (or anyone) would explain in detail how they did this in the lab.
Hi Advocate. Here's the link

Androgen Stimulates Transcription and Replication of XMRV (Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus).
Dong B, Silverman RH.

Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195
 
K

_Kim_

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Full text by subscription

Hi Kim,

I couldn't find the full text anywhere. Where did you get it? Did they cite the Mikovits article in the references at the end?
Hi Advocate, I have library privileges through my university that allows me to access many full text articles. This was one of them. The link that islandfinn posted only brings me to the abstract that Eric posted in the first message above.

Yes. Below is the reference. This would make it the first time the article was cited in another paper. Exciting!

13. Lombardi, V. C., F. W. Ruscetti, J. Das Gupta, M. A. Pfost, K. S. Hagen, D. L. Peterson, S. K. Ruscetti, R. K. Bagni, C. Petrow-Sadowski, B. Gold, M. Dean, R. H. Silverman, and J. A. Mikovits. 2009. Detection of an Infectious Retrovirus, XMRV, in Blood Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Science.

Hi Eric,

It would be wonderful if you (or anyone) would explain in detail how they did this in the lab.
The details are in the article. I'll pull the article back up again and post some of these another post
 
K

_Kim_

Guest
Lab Procedures

Aftermath? I hope quoting like this doesn't violate copyrights. Let me know if I need to modify/delete these.

To determine if the XMRV U3 region of the 5-LTR contains a functional ARE, experiments were performed in human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP which express a functional androgen receptor(12) (Fig. 1C). The reporter plasmid, pGL4.26-XMRV_U3,
was constructed by digesting pGL4.26 vector containing firefly luciferase cDNA (Promega, Madison, WI) and XMRV clone Vp62-pcDNA3.1(-)(GenBank accession EF185282)(8) with NheI and HindIII and inserting nts 7748 to the end of XMRV into pGL4.26. This segment of the XMRV genome includes all of the U3 region (except for 28 nts at the 5 end) and the R region. Two mutations were generated in the putative ARE: (1) an A to G transition mutation at position -2(agaacA to agaacG) in the GRE(3); and (2) a deletion of the 5 half of the GRE (DAGAACA) (Fig. 1B). QuikChange XL
Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit from Stratagene (La Jolla, CA) was used to generate the point mutation with a pair of primers containing sequences producing an A7913 to G mutation and the deletion mutation was generated with primers including a deletion of
the sequence AGAACA from nts 7908 to 7913. All mutations were confirmed by sequencing. Cells in 12 well plates cultured in hormone-depleted media (phenol red-free RPMI medium 1640 plus 2% charcoal stripped FBS) (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) were cotransfected
using lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) with 1.0 μg of WT or mutant pGL4.26-XMRV_U3 and 0.1 μg of pRL-PK (encoding Renilla luciferase) for 24 h followed by treating cells with 4,5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in
fresh hormone-depleted media . Cells were lysed after 24 h and luciferase assays were performed with Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System kit (Promega, Madison, WI). Firefly luciferase activity from pGL4.26-XMRV_U3 was normalized with Renilla luciferase activity and expressed as relative light units (RLU). Results using LNCaP cells showed that induced transcriptional activity from the WT U3 by 100 nM of DHT was 158+24% of the control (untreated) activity level, whereas the mutated U3 regions had reduced basal
activities (to 56 to 60% of WT U3 activity) and were unresponsive to DHT (Fig. 1D).
The Mo-MLV U3 contains a sequence that is highly similar to the GRE in XMRV U3 except for a one nt difference (Fig. 1B). To compare the U3 regions of XMRV with that of Mo-MLV an additional promoter construct was made. The Mo-MLV U3 (nts 7846 to
8332) was prepared by PCR from plasmid p63-2 of Mo-MLV (a gift from H. Fan, University of California, Irvine, CA)(9) and was inserted into pGL4.26 after digestion with NheI and HindIII. The relative activities of the XMRV and Mo-MLV U3 regions were directly compared in human prostate cancer cell lines that express (LNCaP) or lack (DU145) androgen receptor(12)(Fig. 2A&B, respectively) in the absence or presence of DHT as determined by luciferase activity. In the LNCaP cells DHT stimulated transcription from both the XMRV U3 and Mo-MLV U3 regions by about 2.0- and 1.8-fold, respectively(Fig. 2A). However, the XMRV U3 was 1.6- and 1.8-fold more active than the Mo-MLV promoter in the absence and presence of DHT, respectively. In contrast, neither the XMRV U3 nor the Mo-MLV U3 was stimulated by DHT in the DU145 cells which lack androgen receptor(Fig. 2B). These findings are consistent with the our
prior observation that XMRV replicates to 4-fold higher levels in LNCaP cells than in DU145 cells(8). To compare the androgen effect on XMRV transcription with that of another steroid hormone, DU145 and LNCaP cells which have a glucocorticoid receptor (Fig. 1C) were plated in hormone-depleted media and transfected with XMRV-U3-pGL4 for 24 h prior to treatment with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, for 24 h. Dexamethasone increased the transcription from the XMRV U3 region in both LNCaP and DU145 cells by 1.3- and 1.5-fold, respectively(Fig.2C).
To investigate the effect of androgen on viral replication, LNCaP cells were cultured in triplicate in 24-well plates in hormone-depleted media for 2 days until cells were fully confluent to minimize the effect of DHT on cell numbers. Cells were infected with XMRV
in serum- and phenol red-free RPMI with 8 μg/ml polybrene(8). After 3 h incubation, cells were washed once with PBS and treated with DHT in fresh hormone-depleted media for 2 days. Cell numbers were determined and conditioned cell media was collected for RT assays performed with poly(rA) as template and oligo(dT) as primer(18). Relative RT activities of radiolabeled reaction products were determined with a Storm 840 phosphor imager (Sunnyvale, CA). DHT treatment stimulated XMRV replication to 304+45% of the
control (Fig. 3A). To verify androgen regulation of XMRV replication, the LNCaP cells acutely infected with XMRV in regular RPMI media containing 10% FBS were treated with different concentrations of an anti-androgen, either casodex or flutamide (Fig. 3B&C, respectively). The anti-androgens (at 10 μM) inhibited viral replication as measured by RT activity to 33.6+5.2% (casodex) and 49.7+3.6% % (flutamide) of the control. In comparison, DHT slightly increased cell numbers (111+10% of the control) while casodex and flutamide had no effect on cell numbers. In addition to these acute infection experiments, viral expression of RT activity in LNCaP cells chronically-infected with XMRV was stimulated by DHT by more than 3-fold and similarly inhibited by casodex or flutamide (data not shown). Virus replication in DU145 cells was not affected by DHT due to the absence of the androgen receptor in these cells (data not shown).
To determine if the XMRV GRE/ARE imparts androgen responsiveness on intact virus, we mutated A to G at position -2 (Figs. 1B&3D) in plasmid encoding full-length XMRV strain VP62. WT and mutant viral stocks were prepared in LNCaP cells as described previously(8). LNCaP cells were infected with either WT or mutant XMRV with polybrene in hormone-depleted media and cultured 3 days in the absence or presence of DHT. Treatment with DHT stimulated WT XMRV replication to 167+33% of the control as determined by measuring RT activity in the conditioned media. However, DHT had no effect on the replication of XMRV with the single-base mutation (A->G) at position -2 in the GRE/ARE (Fig. 3D).