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New: Hypocortisolemic ASIA: a vaccine- and chronic infection-induced syndrome behind the origin of long COVID and myalgic encephalomyelitis

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๐ŸŒŸ ๐๐ž๐ฐ ๐š๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐œ๐ฅ๐ž: ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐œ๐จ๐ง๐ง๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐›๐ž๐ญ๐ฐ๐ž๐ž๐ง ๐‹๐จ๐ง๐  ๐‚๐Ž๐•๐ˆ๐ƒ, ๐Œ๐ฒ๐š๐ฅ๐ ๐ข๐œ ๐„๐ง๐œ๐ž๐ฉ๐ก๐š๐ฅ๐จ๐ฆ๐ฒ๐ž๐ฅ๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ-๐ฏ๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐š๐ฅ ๐ฌ๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ฌ ๐ฅ๐ข๐ž๐ฌ ๐ข๐ง ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐จ๐ฉ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐š๐ง ๐€๐ฎ๐ญ๐จ๐ข๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ž ๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐จ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐œ ๐’๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ŸŒŸ


๐ŸŒ I am excited to share with you our latest paper entitled "๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐จ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐œ ๐€๐’๐ˆ๐€: ๐€ ๐ฏ๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž- ๐š๐ง๐ ๐œ๐ก๐ซ๐จ๐ง๐ข๐œ ๐ข๐ง๐Ÿ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง-๐ข๐ง๐๐ฎ๐œ๐ž๐ ๐ฌ๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž ๐›๐ž๐ก๐ข๐ง๐ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐จ๐ซ๐ข๐ ๐ข๐ง ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ฅ๐จ๐ง๐  ๐‚๐Ž๐•๐ˆ๐ƒ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ฆ๐ฒ๐š๐ฅ๐ ๐ข๐œ ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž๐ฉ๐ก๐š๐ฅ๐จ๐ฆ๐ฒ๐ž๐ฅ๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ". In this paper, we explain the links between Long COVID, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS) and COVID-19 post-vaccine syndromes. ๐Ÿค” Stay reading to the end and you will also find our treatment proposal that could improve symptoms.๐Ÿ’Š


โžก๏ธ๐‹๐ข๐ง๐ค ๐ญ๐จ ๐“๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ญ๐ž๐ซ/๐— ๐ญ๐ก๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ ๐ž๐ฑ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐š๐ข๐ง๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ข๐ญ: https://x.com/manruipa/status/1810664159354192253

โžก๏ธ๐‹๐ข๐ง๐ค ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐จ๐ฎ๐ซ ๐ซ๐ž๐ฏ๐ข๐ž๐ฐ ๐š๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐œ๐ฅ๐ž: https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/immunology/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2024.1422940/full

๐Ÿ” ๐€๐›๐ฌ๐ญ๐ซ๐š๐œ๐ญ: We present a model for the development of these diseases that involves a complex interplay between immune hyperactivation, autoimmune hypophysitis or pituitary hypofunction, and immune exhaustion. We believe that the starting point is a deficient CD4 T-cell response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals (HLA-DRB1). This would follow from an uncontrolled immune response with hyperactivation of CD8 T cells and elevated antibody production, some of which could be directed against self-antigens, triggering autoimmune hypophysitis or direct damage to the pituitary, resulting in decreased production of pituitary hormones, such as ACTH. ๐Ÿงฌ

๐Ÿ”ฌ ๐–๐ก๐š๐ญ'๐ฌ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐›๐ข๐  ๐๐ž๐š๐ฅ?

1๏ธโƒฃ ๐‘๐ž๐ฅ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ๐ก๐ข๐ฉ ๐ญ๐จ ๐€๐’๐ˆ๐€ ๐’๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž: We propose that Long COVID, ME/CFS and post-vaccine COVID-19 syndrome could be included in adjuvant-induced autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome (ASIA) due to their similar clinical manifestations and possible relationship to genetic factors, such as polymorphisms in the HLA-DRB1 gene.

2๏ธโƒฃ ๐ƒ๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐จ๐ฉ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐š๐ฅ ๐Œ๐จ๐๐ž๐ฅ: We suggest that these diseases begin with a deficient immune response and progress to uncontrolled immune hyperactivation, followed by immune exhaustion, exacerbating symptoms and pathology.

3๏ธโƒฃ ๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐จ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐š: We highlight the decrease in ACTH production and its impact on immune function and clinical symptoms, establishing a direct link with pituitary dysfunction.

4๏ธโƒฃ ๐“๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ญ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฌ๐š๐ฅ: We propose a treatment approach including antivirals, corticosteroids/ginseng, antioxidants and metabolic precursors to improve symptoms by modulating immune response, pituitary function, inflammation and oxidative stress.

๐Ÿ’ก ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ข๐œ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐œ๐ฅ๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ:

๐Ÿ”นThese disorders could have an autoimmune origin against the adenohypophysis.
๐Ÿ”นTreatment with antivirals and corticosteroid replacement therapy in patients with permanent pituitary damage could improve symptoms by addressing immune and hormonal dysfunction.


๐Ÿง  ๐“๐ก๐ž ๐ค๐ž๐ฒ ๐ข๐ฌ ๐ฉ๐ข๐ญ๐ฎ๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐๐š๐ฆ๐š๐ ๐ž: ๐ก๐จ๐ฐ ๐๐จ๐ž๐ฌ ๐ญ๐ก๐ข๐ฌ ๐ซ๐ž๐ฅ๐š๐ญ๐ž ๐ญ๐จ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐จ๐ฉ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐Œ๐„/๐‚๐…๐’, ๐‹๐จ๐ง๐  ๐‚๐Ž๐•๐ˆ๐ƒ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐จ๐ญ๐ก๐ž๐ซ ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ-๐ฏ๐ข๐ซ๐š๐ฅ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ-๐ฏ๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž ๐ฌ๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ฌ?

๐Ÿ’‰ Certain viruses (and other pathogens) and vaccines can affect the pituitary gland, interfering with cortisol production and triggering a cascade of complex symptoms. In patients with weak HLA-DRB1 alleles, such as DR15, immune hyperactivation can trigger an autoimmune response against ACTH, crucial for cortisol production. This is exactly analogous to how other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis or lupus develop, where the immune system attacks other antigens in the body, but in the syndromes we are discussing, the autoimmunity is specifically directed against pituitary ACTH.

๐Ÿฆ  This link explains why patients with chronic infections often experience persistent hypocortisolemia, as the pathogen continues to produce ACTH-mimicking antigens, maintaining the active autoimmune response or generates direct pituitary damage. In contrast, patients without chronic infections and with the same weak alleles treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) may develop temporary hypophysitis and similar cortisol deficits, but discontinuation of treatment usually allows recovery.

This also explains why patients experience chronic fatigue, dysautonomia, orthostatic intolerance, exercise intolerance, intolerance to stressful events and mild hypoglycemia due to low cortisol. Cortisol is crucial in providing the body with needed energy and regulating the stress response. When cortisol levels are low, as they are in these syndromes, the body cannot respond effectively to physical and emotional demands.

๐ŸฉธCortisol plays a crucial role in maintaining stable blood sugar levels by promoting gluconeogenesis (glucose production) and stimulating the release of stored glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver. When there is insufficient cortisol, the body faces difficulties in increasing glucose levels in demand situations, such as during physical exercise or in response to stress, which can lead to episodes of mild hypoglycemia. In times of fright or anger, adrenaline release may temporarily improve symptoms by temporarily increasing glucose availability, briefly compensating for cortisol deficiency. However, this response does not adequately replace the long-term regulatory functions of cortisol, so symptoms may return once adrenaline subsides.

๐Ÿ‹๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ In the case of physical exercise, which naturally increases cortisol levels to mobilize energy and respond to physical exertion, the lack of this hormone limits the body's ability to maintain sustained physical activity. Patients may experience rapid muscle fatigue, feelings of weakness and slower recovery after exercise.

๐Ÿ˜ฐ As for stressful events (exams, travel, surgical operations, etc) , cortisol also plays a crucial role in the body's response to emotional or physical stress. When cortisol levels are insufficient, the body has difficulty handling stressful situations effectively. This can manifest itself in an exacerbation of existing symptoms, such as intense fatigue, dizziness, difficulty concentrating and a generalized feeling of malaise.

โžก๏ธ For years, many of these patients have been misunderstood and mislabeled as having psychosomatic illness. This is because their symptoms tend to worsen during periods of stress, which has led to the suggestion that the origin of their problems lies in psychological factors. However, the reality is that these patients are not experiencing symptoms due to an underlying psychological disorder, but as a direct result of insufficient cortisol. The lack of this vital hormone prevents the body from adapting and responding appropriately to stress, which perpetuates and aggravates their physical symptoms.

๐Ÿšจ ๐“๐ก๐ž ๐ƒ๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐จ๐ฉ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐€๐ฎ๐ญ๐จ๐ข๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ ๐ญ๐จ ๐€๐‚๐“๐‡: ๐€ ๐๐ซ๐จ๐œ๐ž๐ฌ๐ฌ ๐’๐ข๐ฆ๐ข๐ฅ๐š๐ซ ๐ญ๐จ ๐Ž๐ญ๐ก๐ž๐ซ ๐€๐ฎ๐ญ๐จ๐ข๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ž ๐ƒ๐ข๐ฌ๐ž๐š๐ฌ๐ž๐ฌ ๐ฌ๐ฎ๐œ๐ก ๐š๐ฌ ๐Œ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ญ๐ข๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ž ๐’๐œ๐ฅ๐ž๐ซ๐จ๐ฌ๐ข๐ฌ ๐Ÿšจ

This same mechanism occurs in other autoimmune diseases. Some HLA-II alleles, such as the DR15 variant, are associated with an impaired ability to recognize cells infected with certain pathogens, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In multiple sclerosis this poor recognition ability specifically affects CD4 T cells, which are crucial for coordinating the immune response. When CD4 T cells cannot correctly recognize infected cells, this leads to hyperactivation of CD8 T cells and an increase in antibodies against the pathogen to compensate for the deficient CD4 T cell response. Without the coordinated help of CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells cannot eliminate all EBV-infected cells, thus never effectively eliminating or controlling the infection and resulting in chronic infection. This results in an increase of infected cells, an exhaustion of CD8 T cells and an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases, since CD4 T cells, by misrecognizing these viral antigens presented on the HLA-II antigen-presenting cells, can confuse them with the body's own proteins, generating an autoimmune disease. In multiple sclerosis, autoimmunity develops when the EBNA-1 antigen of the Epstein-Barr virus is mistaken for myelin, due to a similar amino acid sequence and molecular mimicry in patients with DR15 alleles. The same could occur in patients with Long COVID, myalgic encephalomyelitis and post-vaccinal syndromes, where autoimmunity against ACTH develops.

fimmu-15-1422940-g003.jpg

๐Ÿ“ข ๐–๐ก๐ฒ ๐•๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž๐ฌ ๐‚๐š๐ง ๐ƒ๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐จ๐ฉ ๐๐š๐ญ๐ก๐จ๐ฅ๐จ๐ ๐ข๐ž๐ฌ ๐’๐ข๐ฆ๐ข๐ฅ๐š๐ซ ๐ญ๐จ ๐๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐‚๐Ž๐•๐ˆ๐ƒ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ-๐ˆ๐ง๐Ÿ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ฎ๐ฌ ๐Œ๐„/๐‚๐…๐’? ๐Ÿ“ข

๐Ÿ”ฌ ๐‚๐จ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐จ๐ง ๐Œ๐ž๐œ๐ก๐š๐ง๐ข๐ฌ๐ฆ: ๐”๐ง๐œ๐จ๐ง๐ญ๐ซ๐จ๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ž๐ ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ž ๐€๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง.
Both persistent COVID and post-infectious ME/CFS and post-vaccine syndrome share a common basis: an overactive immune response. In our study, we propose the presence of:

1๏ธโƒฃ ๐๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐•๐ข๐ซ๐š๐ฅ ๐€๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ ๐ž๐ง๐ฌ ๐จ๐ซ ๐€๐๐ฃ๐ฎ๐ฏ๐š๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ:
โ–ช๏ธ ๐‚๐ก๐ซ๐จ๐ง๐ข๐œ ๐ฏ๐ข๐ซ๐š๐ฅ ๐ข๐ง๐Ÿ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: after a viral infection, such as SARS-CoV-2 or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), viral antigens may remain in the body, triggering a continuous immune response.
โ–ช๏ธ ๐•๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: Vaccines contain adjuvants designed to stimulate the immune system. In genetically predisposed individuals (HLA-DRB1), this stimulation may be excessive, leading to uncontrolled immune activation similar to a viral infection. In addition, the introduced viral antigens could have molecular mimicry with ACTH, exacerbating the immune response and potentially contributing to the development of autoimmunity against ACTH.


2๏ธโƒฃ ๐€๐ฎ๐ญ๐จ๐ข๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ ๐€๐ ๐š๐ข๐ง๐ฌ๐ญ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐€๐๐ž๐ง๐จ๐ก๐ฒ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฉ๐ก๐ฒ๐ฌ๐ข๐ฌ:
* Both conditions can lead to autoimmune inflammation of the adenohypophysis (autoimmune hypophysitis), resulting in hormonal dysfunction, especially ACTH production.


3๏ธโƒฃ ๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐ž๐ซ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐จ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐š ๐š๐ง๐ ๐‡๐๐€ ๐€๐ฑ๐ข๐ฌ ๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐จ๐Ÿ๐ฎ๐ง๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง:
* Chronic inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine production can alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to low cortisol levels, which exacerbate fatigue and other symptoms.

๐Ÿ”„ ๐‚๐ฒ๐œ๐ฅ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐ž๐ซ๐š๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ž ๐ƒ๐ž๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ž๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง:
โ–ช๏ธ ๐ˆ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐š๐ฅ ๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐ž๐ซ๐š๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: Initial immune response is excessive, with high cytokine production and CD8 T-cell activation.

โ–ช๏ธ ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ž ๐ž๐ฑ๐ก๐š๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง: Over time, this hyperactivation leads to T-cell exhaustion, decreasing the body's ability to control infection and exacerbating the pathology.

โ–ช๏ธ ๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐จ๐ฅ๐ข๐ฌ๐ฆ: Insufficient cortisol maintains the state of immune hyperactivation, perpetuating inflammation and hindering resolution of the immune cycle.

๐Ÿ“Š ๐„๐ฏ๐ข๐๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž ๐š๐ง๐ ๐‚๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐ข๐œ๐š๐ฅ ๐’๐ข๐ฆ๐ข๐ฅ๐š๐ซ๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐ž๐ฌ:
โ–ช๏ธ ๐’๐ก๐š๐ซ๐ž๐ ๐’๐ฒ๐ฆ๐ฉ๐ญ๐จ๐ฆ๐ฌ: chronic fatigue, muscle and joint pain, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, and post-exertional malaise.
โ–ช๏ธ ๐‚๐จ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐จ๐ง ๐†๐ž๐ง๐ž๐ญ๐ข๐œ: Polymorphisms in the HLA-DRB1 gene predispose to an exaggerated immune response to both viral infections and vaccine components.

๐Ÿ” ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐œ๐ฅ๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ข๐จ๐ง: Our review suggests that both Long COVID and post-infectious ME/CFS and post-vaccination syndromes could be considered as part of the autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). These findings underline the need for a personalized therapeutic approach that takes into account the genetic predisposition and immune status of the patient.

๐ŸŒ๐Ÿ’‰ ๐‡๐จ๐ฐ ๐‚๐š๐ง ๐’๐จ๐ฆ๐ž ๐•๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž๐ฌ ๐“๐ซ๐ข๐ ๐ ๐ž๐ซ ๐๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐‡๐ž๐š๐ฅ๐ญ๐ก ๐๐ซ๐จ๐›๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ฌ? ๐Ÿ’‰๐ŸŒ
1๏ธโƒฃ ๐Œ๐ž๐œ๐ก๐š๐ง๐ข๐ฌ๐ฆ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐€๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง:
โ–ช๏ธ Vaccines contain adjuvants and antigens designed to stimulate robust immune responses.
โ–ช๏ธ In some cases, this stimulation can lead to a dysregulated autoimmune response, similar to that seen in diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

2๏ธโƒฃ ๐•๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž๐ฌ ๐ˆ๐ง๐ฏ๐จ๐ฅ๐ฏ๐ž๐:
โ–ช๏ธ COVID-19: Cases of prolonged symptoms after infection or vaccination, known as Long COVID or post-COVID syndrome, have been reported.
โ–ช๏ธ Hepatitis B and C, HPV: Some individuals develop ME/CFS after vaccination, related to autoimmunity and immune alterations.

3๏ธโƒฃ ๐‘๐ข๐ฌ๐ค ๐…๐š๐œ๐ญ๐จ๐ซ๐ฌ:
โ–ช๏ธ Genetic predisposition such as polymorphisms in the HLA-DRB1 gene may increase susceptibility to abnormal immune responses.
โ–ช๏ธ Viral persistence or chronic antigen exposure may trigger a continuous and pathologic immune response.

๐ŸŒ๐Ÿ’‰ ๐ƒ๐ข๐ ๐ฒ๐จ๐ฎ ๐ค๐ง๐จ๐ฐ ๐ญ๐ก๐š๐ญ ๐ฏ๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž๐ฌ ๐๐ž๐ฌ๐ข๐ ๐ง๐ž๐ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐š๐๐ž๐ง๐จ๐ฏ๐ข๐ซ๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ž๐ฌ ๐ฆ๐š๐ฒ ๐ก๐š๐ฏ๐ž ๐š ๐ฌ๐ฅ๐ข๐ ๐ก๐ญ๐ฅ๐ฒ ๐ข๐ง๐œ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ฌ๐ž๐ ๐ซ๐ข๐ฌ๐ค ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ญ๐ซ๐ข๐ ๐ ๐ž๐ซ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ฉ๐ซ๐จ๐ฅ๐จ๐ง๐ ๐ž๐ ๐ข๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ž ๐ซ๐ž๐ฌ๐ฉ๐จ๐ง๐ฌ๐ž๐ฌ ๐œ๐จ๐ฆ๐ฉ๐š๐ซ๐ž๐ ๐ญ๐จ ๐ฆ๐ž๐ฌ๐ฌ๐ž๐ง๐ ๐ž๐ซ ๐‘๐๐€ ๐ฏ๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž๐ฌ?

Adenoviruses used as vectors may persist longer in the body, exposing the immune system to viral components for extended periods.

๐Ÿฆ Adenoviruses are linear double-stranded DNA viruses and remain in an episomal condition in the nucleus. The mechanism of adenovirus vector persistence has not yet been elucidated. But they can persist for a long time in the organism. It is thought that it could be by their integration into the genome or by episomal gene duplication facilitated by the transcription machinery of the host cells. That is, it could happen that it transmits episomes to its cells as occurs in Epstein-Barr virus without lytic phase. During mitosis, EBV episomes are bound to chromosomes in metaphase through EBNA-1, allowing efficient segregation of episomes into daughter cells.

๐Ÿ”ฌ This theoretical phenomenon could predispose certain genetically susceptible individuals to develop chronic autoimmune or inflammatory disorders, as discussed in the context of ASIA syndrome. In contrast, messenger RNA vaccines, by rapidly degrading after inducing the desired immune response, limit this prolonged exposure.

๐Ÿ’‰โš ๏ธ Regardless of the type of vaccine against COVID-19 or other pathologies, whether messenger RNA or adenoviral vector, there is a theoretical possible risk of developing autoimmune disease only in individuals with certain genetic alleles, such as HLA-DRB1. The key lies in prolonged exposure to viral antigens, which could trigger persistent autoimmune responses.

๐Ÿ”ฌ mRNA vaccines are characterized by rapidly degrading after inducing the desired immune response, thus limiting prolonged exposure to viral components. In contrast, adenoviral vector-based vaccines can persist in the body longer, potentially increasing the risk of a longer-lasting autoimmune reaction in susceptible individuals.

๐Ÿ’ก It is crucial to remember that these risks are rare when compared to the total number of vaccinated individuals and that all vaccines, including adenovirus and messenger RNA vaccines, are critical to combat pandemic diseases such as COVID-19 at the species level. However, understanding these differences may help improve future vaccine design and surveillance for potential adverse effects in these susceptible individuals.

๐ŸŒŸ Recall that vaccines save millions of lives and prevent serious consequences of infections in the majority of the population. However, it is crucial to recognize that they may also present risks in some susceptible individuals.

๐Ÿงฌ๐Ÿ’‰ HLA-DRB1 genetic alleles play a crucial role in predisposition to diseases such as Long COVID, myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS) and ASIA syndrome, as well as in post-vaccine syndromes.

๐Ÿ” These HLA-DRB1 alleles are part of the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system, which regulates how the immune system recognizes and responds to foreign antigens, such as viruses and vaccine components. In individuals with certain HLA-DRB1 alleles, the immune system may trigger excessive or inappropriate responses to these antigens, leading to autoimmune conditions and inflammatory syndromes.

๐Ÿฆ  This explains why some patients, after significant viral infection or vaccination, may develop persistent autoimmune reactions. In the case of Long COVID and ME/CFS, persistence of viral antigens could trigger an autoimmune response against self tissues, including the pituitary gland.

๐Ÿ”โœจ In a ๐ค๐ž๐ฒ ๐ฌ๐ญ๐ฎ๐๐ฒ, patients who developed hypophysitis after infection with the first SARS-CoV recovered their health months after treatment with replacement corticosteroids. This finding underscores the importance of detecting hypophysitis early to prevent permanent damage.โžก๏ธ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188349/

๐Ÿง  Hypophysitis can cause a decrease in ACTH production, crucial for adrenal function and immune response. Controlling ACTH levels is critical if symptoms such as chronic fatigue, orthostatic hypotension and sleep disturbances are present after a viral infection.

๐Ÿ’Š Early administration of replacement corticosteroids can stop ACTH secretion and prevent autoimmunity against this hormone, thus protecting the pituitary from further damage. Over time, as hypophysitis and viral infection subside, the dose of replacement corticosteroids can be gradually reduced until normal pituitary function is restored.

๐Ÿ”Challenges in HPA Axis Evaluation in Patients with Long COVID, ME/CFS and Post-Vaccine Syndromes.

Studies are often limited to single morning cortisol measurements, ignoring diurnal variability and cortisol response to physical/mental stress, which may underestimate problems in the HPA axis. In addition, CRH or ACTH stimulation tests, crucial for assessing pituitary and adrenal function, are not frequently performed.

It is crucial to detect HPA axis dysfunctions as early as possible to prevent adrenal atrophy due to low ACTH levels. Newly diagnosed patients may recover HPA axis function if autoimmune or direct damage by infection to the pituitary is detected early. Conversely, as time passes, the risk of pituitary damage from autoimmunity against ACTH increases, leading to further adrenal atrophy and the need for hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Early detection and treatment of these dysfunctions is crucial to improve the clinical management and quality of life of these patients.

fimmu-15-1422940-g001.jpg

๐ŸŒŸ๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฌ๐ž๐ ๐€๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐๐ซ๐จ๐ญ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ฅ ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐œ๐ก๐ซ๐จ๐ง๐ข๐œ ๐œ๐š๐ฌ๐ž๐ฌ ๐จ๐ซ ๐จ๐ฏ๐ž๐ซ ๐Ÿ” ๐ฆ๐จ๐ง๐ญ๐ก๐ฌ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐‹๐จ๐ง๐  ๐‚๐Ž๐•๐ˆ๐ƒ, ๐Œ๐„/๐‚๐…๐’ ๐จ๐ซ ๐๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ-๐•๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž ๐’๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ฌ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐๐ข๐ญ๐ฎ๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐ƒ๐š๐ฆ๐š๐ ๐ž: ๐ŸŒŸ
โžก๏ธ ๐ˆ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐š๐ฅ ๐„๐ฏ๐š๐ฅ๐ฎ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง:
๐ŸงชLaboratory and Imaging Tests: Pituitary MRI, Serum cortisol, saliva cortisol, 24h urine cortisol, plasma ACTH, DHEA-S and stimulation tests such as Synacthen test (synthetic ACTH stimulation test) to assess the status of the cortisol-producing adrenal glands. The diagnostic value of Synacthen lies in the assumption that chronic ACTH deficiency leads to adrenal atrophy and a consequent diminished response to stimulation with synthetic ACTH. A diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency can also be confirmed with CRH stimulation testing.

โžก๏ธ ๐ˆ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐š๐ฅ ๐ญ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ญ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ:
๐Ÿ’Š If presenting pituitary with decreased ACTH, initiate treatment with oral hydrocortisone to decrease the damage caused by autoimmunity to pituitary ACTH.

โžก๏ธ ๐…๐จ๐ฅ๐ฅ๐จ๐ฐ-๐ฎ๐ฉ:
-Perform cortisol and ACTH tests every 3 months during the first year ๐Ÿ“Š.
-Repeat Synacthen stimulation tests to assess HPA axis recovery.

โžก๏ธ ๐„๐ฏ๐š๐ฅ๐ฎ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐‡๐๐€ ๐€๐ฑ๐ข๐ฌ ๐‘๐ž๐œ๐จ๐ฏ๐ž๐ซ๐ฒ:
๐Ÿ…ฐ๏ธ If post-stimulation cortisol is greater than 550 nmol/l:
-Consider gradually reducing the dose of hydrocortisone under medical supervision.
-Periodic post-suspension assessments to ensure that the HPA axis remains functional and that ACTH and cortisol levels remain at normal levels.

๐Ÿ…ฑ๏ธ If post-stimulation cortisol is less than 550 nmol/l or there are symptoms when reducing hydrocortisone:
1๏ธโƒฃ ๐‡๐ฒ๐๐ซ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐จ๐ง๐ž ๐Œ๐š๐ข๐ง๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐š๐ง๐œ๐ž:
Maintain hydrocortisone therapy at appropriate doses to control symptoms and avoid adrenal insufficiency.

2๏ธโƒฃ ๐‘๐ž๐ ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐š๐ซ ๐Œ๐จ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐จ๐ซ๐ข๐ง๐ :
-Periodic cortisol and ACTH assessments.
-Adjust hydrocortisone dose based on test results and clinical presentation.
-Consider other hormonal treatments if deficiencies in other pituitary hormones are identified (e.g. thyroid consequences, DHEA).

๐ŸŒŸ๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฌ๐ž๐ ๐€๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐๐ซ๐จ๐ญ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ฅ ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐๐ž๐ฐ ๐‚๐š๐ฌ๐ž๐ฌ ๐จ๐ซ ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฌ๐ฌ ๐ญ๐ก๐š๐ง ๐Ÿ” ๐ฆ๐จ๐ง๐ญ๐ก๐ฌ ๐จ๐ฅ๐ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐‹๐จ๐ง๐  ๐‚๐Ž๐•๐ˆ๐ƒ, ๐Œ๐„/๐‚๐…๐’ ๐จ๐ซ ๐๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ-๐•๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž ๐’๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ฌ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐๐ข๐ญ๐ฎ๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐ƒ๐š๐ฆ๐š๐ ๐ž: ๐ŸŒŸ

โžก๏ธ ๐ˆ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐š๐ฅ ๐„๐ฏ๐š๐ฅ๐ฎ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง:
๐ŸงชLaboratory and Imaging Tests: Pituitary MRI, Serum cortisol, saliva cortisol, 24h urine cortisol, plasma ACTH, DHEA-S and stimulation tests such as Synacthen test. ACTH testing may not be accurate in these patients when they present with secondary adrenal insufficiency for a shorter period because their adrenal glands have not yet shrunk and may still respond to ACTH. In such situations, CRH stimulation tests may be more appropriate, as they assess the ability of the pituitary to secrete ACTH. A low or absent ACTH response on CRH testing would indicate a problem at the pituitary level.

โžก๏ธ ๐ˆ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐š๐ฅ ๐ญ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ญ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ:
๐Ÿ’Š If presenting pituitary with decreased ACTH, initiate treatment with oral hydrocortisone to decrease the damage caused by autoimmunity to pituitary ACTH.

โžก๏ธ ๐…๐จ๐ฅ๐ฅ๐จ๐ฐ-๐ฎ๐ฉ:
-Perform cortisol and ACTH tests every 3 months during the first year ๐Ÿ“Š.
-Repeat stimulation tests to assess HPA axis recovery.

โžก๏ธ๐„๐ฏ๐š๐ฅ๐ฎ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐‡๐๐€ ๐€๐ฑ๐ข๐ฌ ๐‘๐ž๐œ๐จ๐ฏ๐ž๐ซ๐ฒ:
๐Ÿ…ฐ๏ธ If post-stimulation ACTH is in normal ranges:
-Consider gradually reducing the dose of hydrocortisone under medical supervision.
-Periodic post-suspension assessments to ensure that the HPA axis remains functional and that ACTH and cortisol levels remain at normal levels.

๐Ÿ…ฑ๏ธ If post-stimulation cortisol is below normal levels or there are symptoms when reducing hydrocortisone:
1๏ธโƒฃ ๐‡๐ฒ๐๐ซ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐จ๐ง๐ž ๐Œ๐š๐ข๐ง๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐š๐ง๐œ๐ž:
Maintain hydrocortisone therapy at appropriate doses to control symptoms and avoid adrenal insufficiency.

2๏ธโƒฃ ๐‘๐ž๐ ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐š๐ซ ๐Œ๐จ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐จ๐ซ๐ข๐ง๐ :
-Periodic cortisol and ACTH assessments.
-Adjust hydrocortisone dose based on test results and clinical presentation.
-Consider other hormonal treatments if deficiencies in other pituitary hormones are identified (e.g. thyroid consequences, DHEA

๐Ÿ”ฌ ๐“๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ญ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฌ๐š๐ฅ๐ฌ ๐๐š๐ญ๐ข๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐‚๐Ž๐•๐ˆ๐ƒ, ๐‹๐จ๐ง๐ -๐„๐ฏ๐จ๐ฅ๐ฎ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐Œ๐„/๐‚๐…๐’ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ-๐•๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž ๐’๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ฌ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐๐ข๐ญ๐ฎ๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐ƒ๐š๐ฆ๐š๐ ๐ž:

1๏ธโƒฃ ๐‚๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐œ๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ซ๐จ๐ข๐๐ฌ/๐Š๐จ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ง ๐ซ๐ž๐ ๐ ๐ข๐ง๐ฌ๐ž๐ง๐ :
โ–ช๏ธ How Do They Help? May reduce inflammation and regulate immune response. Reduces NF-kB pathway by decreasing oxidative stress and antioxidant intake. Corticosteroids in replacement doses are useful in cases of permanent pituitary damage, while ginseng may be beneficial in the long term by decreasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and improving immune and adrenal function in cases with HPA axis disruption.

โ–ช๏ธ Important: In cases where mildly low cortisol levels are present, ginseng treatment alone could be started to assess whether cortisol levels increase naturally. If no improvement is observed, consider starting replacement doses with hydrocortisone, always under medical supervision.

2๏ธโƒฃ ๐€๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐ข๐ซ๐š๐ฅ๐ฌ: How Do They Help? Crucial in suppressing persistent viral replication, thus mitigating immune hyperactivity. Valtrex for herpesviruses such as EBV and Paxlovid for SARS-CoV-2.

3๏ธโƒฃ ๐ƒ๐‡๐„๐€ ๐ฌ๐ฎ๐ฉ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐ข๐Ÿ ๐๐ž๐Ÿ๐ข๐œ๐ข๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ฒ ๐ž๐ฑ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ฌ:
โ–ช๏ธ How Does It Help? DHEA is important for hormonal balance, especially when corticosteroid use inhibits ACTH production. It helps maintain energy and decrease the autoreactive T-cell response.

4๏ธโƒฃ ๐€๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ฑ๐ข๐๐š๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐Œ๐ž๐ญ๐š๐›๐จ๐ฅ๐ข๐œ ๐๐ซ๐ž๐œ๐ฎ๐ซ๐ฌ๐จ๐ซ๐ฌ:
โ–ช๏ธ Vitamins (C, B-complex), NAC, ALA, SAM-e, Selenium:
* How do they help? Reduce oxidative stress, improve mitochondrial function and restore glutathione levels, thus supporting cellular recovery and immune function.
โ–ช๏ธ NMN (Nicotinamide Mononucleotide):
* How does it help? Restores NAD+ levels, crucial for antiviral activities and cellular health.

5๏ธโƒฃ ๐†๐ฅ๐ฎ๐ญ๐š๐ฆ๐ข๐ง๐ž:
* How Does It Help. Supports energy metabolism and immune function, especially during states of high immune demand.

6๏ธโƒฃ ๐€๐ฌ๐ญ๐ซ๐š๐ ๐š๐ฅ๐ฎ๐ฌ:
* How Does It Help? Reduces oxidative stress and has immunomodulatory properties that may enhance CD4 T-cell deficient immune response and prevent viral reactivation, especially of EBV. Astragalus has shown indications of reducing clotting, which could have potential benefits in conditions associated with microclot formation.

7๏ธโƒฃ ๐๐ซ๐จ๐ญ๐ž๐ข๐ง ๐š๐ง๐ ๐‚๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐ž ๐ฌ๐ฎ๐ฉ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง:
* How Do They Help? They maintain protein synthesis and prevent muscle breakdown, thus improving energy and physical recovery. Beware of creatine and protein supplements, as they do not suit everyone equally well, and may generate gastrointestinal problems.

8๏ธโƒฃ ๐•๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ฆ๐ข๐ง ๐ƒ:
* How Does it help? Reduces T-cell hyperactivation and improves insulin sensitivity, which may have additional benefits in inflammatory diseases and insulin resistance.

9๏ธโƒฃ ๐Œ๐ž๐ฅ๐š๐ญ๐จ๐ง๐ข๐ง:
* How Does It Help? Improves sleep, protects the central nervous system and reduces neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. It is essential not to sleep less than 8 hours, as in patients with hypocortisolism, lack of sleep can further destabilize cortisol production, worsen symptoms, destabilize circadian rhythms and reduce cortisol needed for awakening.

๐Ÿ”Ÿ ๐€๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ก๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐š๐ฆ๐ข๐ง๐ž๐ฌ:
* How Do They Help? They reduce inflammation caused by histamine accumulation due to decreased DAO activity, decreasing Th2 response and improving allergies, food intolerances and fatigue.

1๏ธโƒฃ1๏ธโƒฃ ๐…๐จ๐จ๐:
* How Do They Help? These patients may tolerate less food and present food intolerances due to inflammation and oxidative stress, as a consequence of immune hyperactivation and low cortisol. The intestine is one of the tissues most affected by oxidative stress, especially during digestion, as this process generates free radicals that can damage intestinal cells. A diet rich in antioxidants is essential to neutralize these free radicals, mitigate tissue damage and improve food tolerance. It is therefore important to take antioxidant supplements during meals and avoid foods that generate more inflammatory load, such as those rich in histamine.

โžก๏ธ More information in our review article: https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/immunology/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2024.1422940/full

๐ƒ๐จ๐ฌ๐š๐ ๐ž ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ญ๐ข๐ฆ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ญ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ญ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ
While many of these supplements may be familiar to most patients and some have even been tried before, the real key to this therapeutic approach lies in the precision of dosages and frequency of administration throughout the day to maintain stable blood levels. It is also critical to make these adjustments under proper medical supervision to ensure the long-term safety and efficacy of the treatment.


๐Ÿ’ก ๐„๐ฑ๐ฉ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ž๐ ๐๐ž๐ง๐ž๐Ÿ๐ข๐ญ๐ฌ:
๐Ÿ”น Reduction of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: Improving quality of life and daily energy.
๐Ÿ”น Immune and Hormonal Regulation: Helping to stabilize immune and hormonal function.
๐Ÿ”น Improving Clinical Symptoms: By addressing the root cause of immune and hormonal dysfunction, symptoms such as fatigue, pain and cognitive issues may decreas

๐Ÿ”ฌTo advance the scientific validation of these protocols, we are considering the possibility of conducting a clinical trial. We are currently seeking funding for this project, as we believe it is essential to demonstrate the efficacy of these treatments in a broader context. I also believe that, in order to advance as quickly as possible in the treatment of these pathologies, the collaboration of several centers testing these treatments is necessary. For that reason if any center/institution wants to do a joint study we are open to collaborate and receive funding.

๐Ÿ“ข Please, if you are taking these supplements and treatments and you are going to participate in any study of these diseases, I encourage you to communicate it to the responsible of the study. As they could change the results of the study. This is crucial to ensure the validity of the data and to avoid any bias that may mask the reality of these complex medical conditions. In addition, it is critical that these treatments and supplements be supervised by your physician.

๐Ÿ’ก Let's keep working together to advance the treatment of Long COVID, ME/CFS and post-vaccine syndromes! Thanks for reading this great thread!

๐Ÿ”„๐’๐ก๐š๐ซ๐ž all this information with other patients and physicians/researchers to improve the quality of life for these patients. Together we can move towards more effective treatments and a better understanding of these medical conditions.

I will be uploading more information related to this article in the coming weeks.

Attached is another thread where we explain the consequences and development of acquired immunodeficiency in these patients:

This article has been possible thanks to the research line funded by @PlzSolveCFS and Helpify, carried out at the @CIMA_unav of the @unav with the team of Dr. Bruno Paiva (@BrunoPaiva_UNAV). we deeply appreciate their support!

fimmu-15-1422940-g002.jpg
 

cfs since 1998

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๐ŸŒŸ ๐๐ž๐ฐ ๐š๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐œ๐ฅ๐ž: ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐œ๐จ๐ง๐ง๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐›๐ž๐ญ๐ฐ๐ž๐ž๐ง ๐‹๐จ๐ง๐  ๐‚๐Ž๐•๐ˆ๐ƒ, ๐Œ๐ฒ๐š๐ฅ๐ ๐ข๐œ ๐„๐ง๐œ๐ž๐ฉ๐ก๐š๐ฅ๐จ๐ฆ๐ฒ๐ž๐ฅ๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ-๐ฏ๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐š๐ฅ ๐ฌ๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ฌ ๐ฅ๐ข๐ž๐ฌ ๐ข๐ง ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐จ๐ฉ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐š๐ง ๐€๐ฎ๐ญ๐จ๐ข๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ง๐ž ๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐จ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐œ ๐’๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž๐ŸŒŸ


๐ŸŒ I am excited to share with you our latest paper entitled "๐‡๐ฒ๐ฉ๐จ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐จ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐œ ๐€๐’๐ˆ๐€: ๐€ ๐ฏ๐š๐œ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐ž- ๐š๐ง๐ ๐œ๐ก๐ซ๐จ๐ง๐ข๐œ ๐ข๐ง๐Ÿ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง-๐ข๐ง๐๐ฎ๐œ๐ž๐ ๐ฌ๐ฒ๐ง๐๐ซ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž ๐›๐ž๐ก๐ข๐ง๐ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐จ๐ซ๐ข๐ ๐ข๐ง ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ฅ๐จ๐ง๐  ๐‚๐Ž๐•๐ˆ๐ƒ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ฆ๐ฒ๐š๐ฅ๐ ๐ข๐œ ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž๐ฉ๐ก๐š๐ฅ๐จ๐ฆ๐ฒ๐ž๐ฅ๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ". In this paper, we explain the links between Long COVID, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS) and COVID-19 post-vaccine syndromes. ๐Ÿค” Stay reading to the end and you will also find our treatment proposal that could improve symptoms.๐Ÿ’Š


โžก๏ธ๐‹๐ข๐ง๐ค ๐ญ๐จ ๐“๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ญ๐ž๐ซ/๐— ๐ญ๐ก๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ ๐ž๐ฑ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐š๐ข๐ง๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ข๐ญ: https://x.com/manruipa/status/1810664159354192253

โžก๏ธ๐‹๐ข๐ง๐ค ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐จ๐ฎ๐ซ ๐ซ๐ž๐ฏ๐ข๐ž๐ฐ ๐š๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐œ๐ฅ๐ž: https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/immunology/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2024.1422940/full
Thank you, Manuel. It will take a few days for me to digest this but hopefully you will be back to answer questions.
 

Wishful

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Am I not seeing any actual testing of this theory? I see lots of "theory suggests" and "theory x supports theory y", but no real "clinical measurements of z supports the theory". As for treatments, I'm pretty sure that plenty of people have tried ginseng and DHEA and various forms of cortisol ... with no reliable benefits.

The collection of individual theories in the paper offers possibilities to test, which is a good thing, but without supporting successful testing of the theory, it seems a bit early for "exciting announcement!!!" Cold fusion anyone?
 
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10
@SWAlexander relevant to your comment posted in thread 'Herpesviruses, Endothelial Dysfunction, and ME/CFS' https://forums.phoenixrising.me/thr...ial-dysfunction-and-me-cfs.92130/post-2462713

wastwater, thanks.
He mentioned the dexamethasone test, which measures cortisol and ACTH levels. I have been advocating for cortisol and ACTH testing since 2021. Gradually, some doctors are beginning to understand its importance. However, the ACTH test is rare in Germany, as most endocrinologists have lost patience with insurance companies, meaning it often requires out-of-pocket payment. Unfortunately, he also promotes vaccination.
 
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93
I had my messages with sourced links and warnings about this community taking any mRna shots, deleted by the M0ds here. Know directly over 6 people who now have CFS/Fibro/Long Covid issues post vaxx and another handful in their 30's and 40's no longer with us and finally articles in Australia, Europe, and Japan are starting to come out showing that there indeed connections. I feel so sad for those of you took the shots.
 

Hip

Senior Member
Messages
17,995
I had my messages with sourced links and warnings about this community taking any mRna shots, deleted by the M0ds here. Know directly over 6 people who now have CFS/Fibro/Long Covid issues post vaxx and another handful in their 30's and 40's no longer with us and finally articles in Australia, Europe, and Japan are starting to come out showing that there indeed connections. I feel so sad for those of you took the shots.

That's a rather myopic and polarised view. I know 4 people in my social circle who died of COVID because they were unvaccinated. Cleary there are pros and cons to vaccination, and a balanced view would encompass all the nuances and situations.

It's not surprising that COVID vaccines can occasionally trigger ME/CFS, as many other vaccines are also known to do this. According to some pre-pandemic research by Dr Chia, around 1.5% of ME/CFS patients have their illness triggered by a vaccine.

Why a viral infection as well as a vaccination can trigger ME/CFS remains a mystery. If the dots can be connected between these two triggers, it should throw light on the nature of ME/CFS.
 
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93
That's a rather myopic and polarised view. I know 4 people in my social circle who died of COVID because they were unvaccinated. Cleary there are pros and cons to vaccination, and a balanced view would encompass all the nuances and situations.

It's not surprising that COVID vaccines can occasionally trigger ME/CFS, as many other vaccines are also known to do this. According to some pre-pandemic research by Dr Chia, around 1.5% of ME/CFS patients have their illness triggered by a vaccine.

Why a viral infection as well as a vaccination can trigger ME/CFS remains a mystery. If the dots can be connected between these two triggers, it should throw light on the nature of ME/CFS.
Well yes, people died from Covid as do a ton of people annually and globally from the Flu as well, When I had Covid, I couldnt breath for 3 days and thought I was a gonner, but luckily made it. However, after dealing with this CFS/Fibro illness for 20+ years and going through 30+ incompetent Doctors who have no business whatsoever even being Doctors, one can quickly learn and should learn and realize that you cant ever fully trust the Government, Big Pharma and its lawsuits, and the Big Medical industry. Look at all the commercials on TV, "Did you used to take such and such medications? Which you were told are safe, but in the end werent, and now have such and such issues from? Call now to join our class action lawsuits" I can post like 4o different examples from Big Pharma rolling out meds that were never safe and then killing people and having to pay fines in the Billions of dollars. I can also post studies of all the animals used in mRna vaccine tests dying from those tests and not a single one ever made it. And I can post studies, articles, Senators, Lawyers, Academics all discussing "Big Tech Censorship" that arose during the roll out of these shots.

I will say, I thank God I am pure blooded and never got a single Covid Vaccine, and I really seriously feel bad for those of you who did. And I have well over 200 Studies saved from all over the world now that will break your heart about these shots. But in the end, there's nothing I can do about it except watch my friends who did, one by one, continue to get sick and to pass away, and those who havent yet, refuse to look at my studies or believe I even have them. It's sad that I have front row seats to all of this
 

Violeta

Senior Member
Messages
3,030
Does anyone here have polymorphisms in the HLA-DRB1 gene?

And the COVID vaccine spoken of in the article is the one with the adenovirus adjuvant, not mRNA.
 

Violeta

Senior Member
Messages
3,030
Thank you, @Manuel, for the study, and for bringing it here to Phoenix Rising.

The chart is absolutely amazing.

Thank you for including in your study recommended tests and remedies.

It represents a lot of study, that is for sure. I am glad you are well enough to research ME/CFS for us.
 

Violeta

Senior Member
Messages
3,030
Manuel's paper states that astragalus:

Reduces oxidative stress and has immunomodulatory properties that may enhance CD4 T-cell deficient immune response and prevent viral reactivation, especially of EBV. Astragalus has shown indications of reducing clotting, which could have potential benefits in conditions associated with microclot formation.

As stated in a paper by Vipin Vashitshtha on Twitter: In about 5% of anti-NMDAR patients, a brain inflammation caused by a herpes simplex infection later turns into autoimmune encephalitis; researchers think neurons destroyed by the virus release molecules that prompt the production of autoantibodies.

Here's a paper about astragalus and it's effect on that condition:

Identifying the Anti-inflammatory Effects of Astragalus Polysaccharides in Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis​


https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cchts/2024/00000027/00000007/art00008

Here is Vipin Vishitshtha's information if you would like to look for him on Twitter.

1721058515953.png
 
Messages
71
Thanks for interesting post @Manuel ;
If I may ask: To what extent have you personally tried the proposed treatment options? And to what degree have you experienced improvement from them?
My Personal Experience with this Treatment Protocol:

Before starting this therapeutic approach, I was limited in my daily and academic capacity due to ME/CFS. I was unable to leave the house much, with orthostatic intolerance, constant dizziness, fatigue, bowel problems, dysutonmia, etc. However, since starting this protocol, I have been able to return to college to finish my studies, return to the gym and regain my physical strength through anaerobic exercise with weights. In addition, I have been able to reintroduce foods that previously caused me problems due to food intolerances I developed with ME/CFS. I even relapsed after a new SARS-CoV-2 infection but was able to return to my "improved" state again by following the protocol.

In my particular case, the introduction of antivirals, antihistamines, ginseng, astragalus, NAC and metabolic precursors has played a crucial role in improving my cortisol levels and immune markers. I want to make it clear that this is a symptomatic treatment and not a cure since antivirals against herpesviruses do not eliminate the latency cells of this virus. In addition, I am not yet fully healthy, I have some limitations and so I consider the possibility of permanent damage with hypofunction of my pituitary gland. Still, this protocol has made a significant difference in my quality of life. The next step I am considering is to introduce hydrocortisone in replacement doses. But first I have to be sure of permanent and irreversible damage to my pituitary.

However, it is important to note that I have only followed this protocol myself. To advance the scientific validation of these results, I am considering the possibility of conducting a clinical trial. We are currently seeking funding for this project, as we believe it is critical to demonstrate the efficacy of these treatments in a broader context. I also believe that, in order to advance as quickly as possible in the treatment of these pathologies, the collaboration of several centers testing these treatments is necessary. For that reason if any center/institution wants to do a joint study we are open to collaborate and receive funding.
 
Messages
71
Being HLA-DR15 negative directly exclude you from this model?
No. We believe that the main haplotypes that could be related to these diseases are the ancestral haplotypes DR2(DR15)-DQ6, DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8.

There may also be other specific weak alleles against these antigens that we have not found.

In addition, the model may also be useful with only pituitary damage due to autoimmunity developed after infection or vaccination.
 
Messages
10
My Personal Experience with this Treatment Protocol:

Before starting this therapeutic approach, I was limited in my daily and academic capacity due to ME/CFS. I was unable to leave the house much, with orthostatic intolerance, constant dizziness, fatigue, bowel problems, dysutonmia, etc. However, since starting this protocol, I have been able to return to college to finish my studies, return to the gym and regain my physical strength through anaerobic exercise with weights. In addition, I have been able to reintroduce foods that previously caused me problems due to food intolerances I developed with ME/CFS. I even relapsed after a new SARS-CoV-2 infection but was able to return to my "improved" state again by following the protocol.

In my particular case, the introduction of antivirals, antihistamines, ginseng, astragalus, NAC and metabolic precursors has played a crucial role in improving my cortisol levels and immune markers. I want to make it clear that this is a symptomatic treatment and not a cure since antivirals against herpesviruses do not eliminate the latency cells of this virus. In addition, I am not yet fully healthy, I have some limitations and so I consider the possibility of permanent damage with hypofunction of my pituitary gland. Still, this protocol has made a significant difference in my quality of life. The next step I am considering is to introduce hydrocortisone in replacement doses. But first I have to be sure of permanent and irreversible damage to my pituitary.

However, it is important to note that I have only followed this protocol myself. To advance the scientific validation of these results, I am considering the possibility of conducting a clinical trial. We are currently seeking funding for this project, as we believe it is critical to demonstrate the efficacy of these treatments in a broader context. I also believe that, in order to advance as quickly as possible in the treatment of these pathologies, the collaboration of several centers testing these treatments is necessary. For that reason if any center/institution wants to do a joint study we are open to collaborate and receive funding.

So you had such recover without corticosteroids?

What would you say was the most helpful part of the protocol?

What metabolic precursors did you use? L-glutamine on it's own gave me a huge energy boost but in exchange of excitotoxcicity (insomnia, headaches, worst intolerances...) so had to stop taking it with a fatigue/brain fog rebound.
 
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