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Levamisole Suppresses CD4+ T-Cell Proliferation 2022


Senior Member
Levamisole is used for decades as an adjuvant immunotherapy in many autoimmune diseases, but little was known about his activity...


Levamisole Suppresses CD4+ T-Cell Proliferation and Antigen-Presenting Cell Activation in Aplastic Anemia by Regulating the JAK/STAT and TLR Signaling Pathways - PMC (nih.gov)

In this study, the CSA+LMS-based regimen showed a superior immune-suppressive response and higher recession rate than standard CSA therapy in the clinical retrospective study.

LMS improved pancytopenia and extended the survival in an immune-mediated BM failure murine model by suppressing effector T cells and promoting regulatory T-cell expansion, which were also confirmed by in vitro experiments.

By screening of binding targets, we found that JAK1/2 and TLR7 showed the highest docking score as LMS targeting molecules.

In terms of the underlying molecular mechanisms, LMS could inhibit JAK/STAT and TLR7 signaling activity and downstream involved molecules.

In summary, LMS treatment could inhibit T-cell activation and downregulate related molecules by the JAK/STAT and TLR signaling pathways, supporting the valuable clinical utility of LMS in the treatment of AA.
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Senior Member
Efficacy and safety of Levamisole treatment in clinical presentations of non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial | SpringerLink

Levamisole is a synthetic low-molecular weight agent which belongs to the anti-helminthic class of medications. Levamisole can enhance cellular immunity depending on the dosage and timing of the administration [14, 15].
In in-vitro models, it has been reported that the combination of Levamisole and ascorbic acid can reverse the depressed helper/inducer subpopulation of lymphocyte in measles virus.
The abnormality in lymphocytes number could be reproduced in Levamisole treated lymphocytes in-vitro [15, 16].

Through improving the cellular immunity, Levamisole showed efficacy in various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases [17].

Interestingly, this anti-helminthic medication is able to phagocytose the immune cells to the normal level via its immune regulatory properties.

Furthermore, Levamisole improved the function of human interferon and modulates T-cell immunity.

The efficacy of this drug has been further documented in the management of some malignancies and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, vitiligo, and viral warts [18].

Levamisole inserts its promising effects on cellular and humoral immunity through regulating the circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins (IL) 6 and 8.

Levamisole has also been used in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers and it is believed to normalize the CD4 + / CD8 + cell ratio and elevates the serum levels of IgA and IgM.


Senior Member
Hi @pattismith.....Thank goodness people like you and Hip & others are around. With the increased research, it takes people who have worked with and truly understand what is happening.

OK, some of it can be understood easily enough, but others? Good to have folks like you on board. Yours Lenora