Immunological dysfunction persists for 8 months following initial mild-to-moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection

SWAlexander

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Abstract
A proportion of patients surviving acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection develop post-acute COVID syndrome (long COVID (LC)) lasting longer than 12 weeks. Here, we studied individuals with LC compared to age- and gender-matched recovered individuals without LC, unexposed donors and individuals infected with other coronaviruses. Patients with LC had highly activated innate immune cells, lacked naive T and B cells and showed elevated expression of type I IFN (IFN-β) and type III IFN (IFN-λ1) that remained persistently high at 8 months after infection. Using a log-linear classification model, we defined an optimal set of analytes that had the strongest association with LC among the 28 analytes measured. Combinations of the inflammatory mediators IFN-β, PTX3, IFN-γ, IFN-λ2/3 and IL-6 associated with LC with 78.5–81.6% accuracy. This work defines immunological parameters associated with LC and suggests future opportunities for prevention and treatment.
more at: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-021-01113-x
 
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To examine biomarkers associated with LC, we assessed 28 analytes in the serum of patients from the LC, MC, HCoV and UHC groups at month 4 after infection using a bead-based assay. Six proinflammatory cytokines (interferon β (IFN-β), IFN-λ1, IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and soluble T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 3 (sTIM-3)) were elevated in the LC and MC groups compared to the HCoV and UHC groups (Fig. 1), with no difference observed in the 22 other analytes, including IL-6 and IL-33 (Extended Data Fig. 1).
 

SWAlexander

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My dr. report just came in. Diagnosis: Antiphospholipid syndrome.

Seeking help for more information.
I couldn't find much on Google.
Thank you.
 
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SWAlexander

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