Association found between Systemic Lupus Erythematosus / Excessive Daily Sleepiness / lesions in the hypothalamus.... With or without low Hypocretin / Orexin ...
Cerebrospinal fluid orexin-A levels in systemic lupus erythematosus patients presenting with excessive daytime sleepiness
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K Suzuki, M Miyamoto, T Miyamoto, ...
First Published May 31, 2018
Involvement of the hypothalamus is rare in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin-A levels in SLE patients with hypothalamic lesions to investigate whether the orexin system plays a role in SLE patients with hypothalamic lesions who present with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).
Orexin-A levels were measured in CSF from four patients with SLE who presented with hypothalamic lesions detected by MRI.
Three patients underwent repeated CSF testing.
All patients met the updated American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for SLE.
Tests for serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, CSF myelin basic protein and CSF oligoclonal bands were negative in all patients.
All patients presented with EDS.
Low to intermediate CSF orexin-A levels (92–180 pg/ml) were observed in three patients in the acute stage, two of whom (patients 1 and 2) underwent repeated testing and showed increased CSF orexin-A levels, reduced abnormal hypothalamic lesion intensities detected by MRI and EDS dissipation at follow-up.
In contrast, CSF orexin-A levels were normal in one patient (patient 4) while in the acute stage and at follow-up, despite improvements in EDS and MRI findings.
Patient 4 showed markedly increased CSF interleukin-6 levels (1130 pg/ml) and a slightly involved hypothalamus than the other patients.
Our findings suggest that the orexinergic system has a role in EDS in SLE patients with hypothalamic lesions.
Furthermore, cytokine-mediated tissue damage might cause EDS without orexinergic involvement.