Chromium in the Nervous System

percyval577

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Chromium Picolinat Influence on Brain Reward System in Native and Morphine - Treated Rats
Nechifor and Ciubotariu, 2017


Abstract
In this study, it was assessed the influence of chromium picolinate (CrPi) on the reward system in rats. For this, we have used the conditioned place preference technique (CPP). We have worked on 6 groups, each of 10 Wistar adult male rats. CrPi was given intraperitoneal, in doses of 0.05 and 0.01 mg/kg b.w., 2 h before conditioning sessions. We have also assessed the CrPi effect on morphine-induced CPP. Our results showed that CrPi significantly increased the time spent in the conditioning chamber in a dose-dependent manner (by 19.18 ± 7.67%, p < 0.05 for CrPi 0.01 mg/kg b.w. and by 35.20 ± 12.40%, p < 0.01 for CrPi 0.05 mg/kg b.w. post-conditioning time vs. pre-conditioning time). In the case of association between morphine and CrPi, both CrPi doses determined a slight but significant increase of morphine stimulating effect on the reward system (p < 0.05).

from the Introduction
Chromium is an essential trace element with multiple roles in the human body. It can be found in bi-, tri- and hexavalent form, and for therapeutic practice it is used mainly the trivalent chromium as picolinate salt. Frequently it is used for reducing insulin resistance and for decreasing hyperglycaemia. Chromium histidinate stimulates also the regenerative potential of cerebral tissue.

The reward system is one of the most important brain systems, with great implications in human behaviour and many substances may either stimulate or inhibit it [12].

The brain structures with the most important involvement in conditioned place preference development are nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area etc. [4, 11, 15]. There are several neurotransmitters involved for conditioned place preference development. Mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways play, in the opinion of most researchers, a key role in reward and motivational processes [10, 18, 19, 21].

Other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, glutamate, opioids, substance P are also involved in these kinds of processes [20]. Biological active metals (magnesium, zinc, calcium and others) are involved in brain reward system functions and influence conditioned place preference induced by strongly addictive substances such as morphine, heroin, cocaine and others [9, 13, 14]. There are few data referring to CrPi capacity to influence the reward system.
open access
Farmacia, 2017, Vol 65, 2
 

Hip

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That's interesting, I suffer from anhedonia, which is a reduced ability to feel pleasure or reward from normally enjoyable activities. Anything which stimulates the reward center in the brain is of interest.
 

Sushi

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That's interesting, I suffer from anhedonia, which is a reduced ability to feel pleasure or reward from normally enjoyable activities. Anything which stimulates the reward center in the brain is of interest.
I remember that some problem has been reported with chromium picolinate. I use chromium polynicotinate as a safer alternative.
 

Cipher

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It might be carcinogenic though:

https://www.reddit.com/r/FoodNerds/comments/4w2lt2
Top reddit comment:
PDF (click Download if it doesn't load)

These results strongly support the hypothesis that the antidiabetic activity of Cr(III) and the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) compounds arise from similar mechanisms involving highly reactive Cr(VI) and Cr(V) intermediates, and highlight concerns over the safety of Cr(III) nutritional supplements.
This should serve as a reminder that chromium supplements are likely carcinogenic and should therefore be avoided. The research is consistent. r-alpha lipoic acid may serve as an acceptable alternative for antidiabetic activity.
 
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percyval577

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The following literature is not included in the list from the article in post#1

Effectiveness of chromium in atypical depression: a placebo controlled trial
Davidson et al. 2003

from the abstract
RESULTS: Seven (70%) CP and zero (0%) PBO patients met responder criteria (p =.02). Other outcomes were consistent with greater effect of CP. Three patients on CP failed to show any improvement. Chromium picolinate was well tolerated.
CONCLUSIONS: Chromium picolinate shows promising antidepressant effects in atypical depression. Its mechanism of action may relate to 5HT2A downregulation, increased insulin sensitivity, or to other effects.
paywalled


Chromium treatment of depression
McLoyd and Golden 2000

Abstract
Eight patients with refractory mood disorders received chromium supplements and described dramatic improvements in their symptoms and functioning. In several instances, single-blind trials confirmed specificity of response to chromium. Side-effects were rare and mild, and most commonly included enhanced dreaming and mild psychomotor activation. To our knowledge, this is the first case series describing the response to chromium monotherapy. The putative antidepressant effects of chromium could be accounted for by enhancement of insulin utilization and related increases in tryptophan availability in the central nervous system, and/or by chromium’s effects on norepinephrine release.
PDF


I myself rather think that a metal monotherapy is half of a shoe, the approach being that metals codiefy, in the brain, geometrical actions, YES.
 

percyval577

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An exploring study from 2014, though it may be due to cobalt:


Brain strucuture nad function in patients after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing
Clark et al 2014

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hip prostheses that use a metal-on-metal articulation expose the brain to elevated metal concentrations that, in acute excess due to prosthesis malfunction, is associated with neurologic damage, including visual and hearing loss and motor deficits. Here, we examined whether chronic exposure to lower elevated metal levels, typical of well-functioning prostheses, also affects brain structure and function.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared brain volumes, metal deposition, and gray matter attenuation by MR imaging and clinical neurologic function in patients 8 years after receiving a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus a matched group of patients with the same duration exposure to a conventional hip prosthesis.

RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (25 men; mean, age 59±7 years) after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and 29 patients (25 men; 59±8 years) after total hip arthroplasty were compared. Whole blood cobalt and chromium concentrations were 5-10 times higher in the metal-on-metal hip resurfacing group (P<.0001). Occipital cortex gray matter attenuation tended to be lower (P<.005 uncorrected, P>.05 corrected), and the optic chiasm area tended to be lower (mean difference, -2.7 mm2; P=.076) in the metal-on-metal hip resurfacing group. Subgroup analyses in 34 patients (17 per group), after exclusion of primary ocular pathology, showed the same trend in gray matter attenuation in the occipital cortex and basal ganglia and a smaller optic chiasm in the metal-on-metal hip resurfacing group (mean difference, -3.9 mm2; P=.048). No other structural or functional differences were found between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Chronic exposure to metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is associated with subtle structural change in the visual pathways and the basal ganglia in asymptomatic patients.
open access
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Sep;35(9):1753-8. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A3922. Epub 2014 Apr 10.


Here a case report from 2019 basically confirming the finding from 2014:

Chromium-Cobalt Intoxication with Intense Systemic Complications following Total Hip Revision after ...
Lecoanet et al 2019

page 3
In this case of severe metallosis after revision of fractured ceramic components with MOP, neurological repercussions of chromium-cobalt intoxication were put forward, especially, impairment of the neurological basal ganglia and caudate nucleus, as seen on the MRI, that were never described before in this type of case.
open access
Case Rep Orthop. 2019; 2019: 4209796. doi:
10.1155/2019/4209796
 
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percyval577

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the findings of changes possibly indued by chromium might be explained only by vascular siderosis:


Abnormal deposits of chromium in the pathological human brain
Duckett 1986


Case1 ....The principal neuropathological findings were: (1) generalised cortical atrophy, (2) hydrocephalus ex vacuo, (3) senile plaques throughout the cerebral cortex, (4) widespread diffuse demyelination with gitter cells, (5) cell loss in the cortex, (6) deposits in and around small blood vessels in the basal ganglia (vascular siderosis) and cerebellum, and in the parenchyma, containing chromium, phosphorus, calcium and traces of iron and iodine, (7) many amyloid bodies in the white matter indicative of fibrous astrocytic pathology, (8) arteriolar sclerosis, (9) myelin bodies in neurons. The final diagnosis was a cerebral degenerative disease of unknown cause.
Case 2 ... The neuropathological findings were: (1) frontal cortical atrophy, (2) chromium in the vascular pallidal "calcifications", (3) possible optic nerve demyelination. The final diagnosis was metabolic encephalopathy

CASE3 ... There were mineral deposits in the media of the small arteries in the globus which contained chromium, phosphorus, calcium. There was no chromium in the tumour. The diagnosis was malignant astrocytic tumour, and vascular siderosis with chromium in the deposits in the vascular wall
open access
journal of Neurology