ResultsA total of 101 publications were included in this systematic review. Potential biomarkers ranged from genetic/epigenetic (19.8%), immunological (29.7%), metabolomics/mitochondrial/microbiome (14.85%), endovascular/circulatory (17.82%), neurological (7.92%), ion channel (8.91%) and physical dysfunction biomarkers (8.91%). Most of the potential biomarkers reported were blood-based (79.2%). Use of lymphocytes as a model to investigate ME/CFS pathology was prominent among immune-based biomarkers. Most biomarkers had secondary (43.56%) or tertiary (54.47%) selectivity, which is the ability for the biomarker to identify a disease-causing agent, and a moderate (59.40%) to complex (39.60%) ease-of-detection, including the requirement of specialised equipment.