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    Created in 2008, Phoenix Rising is the largest and oldest forum dedicated to furthering the understanding of and finding treatments for complex chronic illnesses such as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), long COVID, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), and allied diseases.

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Biomarkers for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS): a systematic review


Senior Member


A total of 101 publications were included in this systematic review. Potential biomarkers ranged from genetic/epigenetic (19.8%), immunological (29.7%), metabolomics/mitochondrial/microbiome (14.85%), endovascular/circulatory (17.82%), neurological (7.92%), ion channel (8.91%) and physical dysfunction biomarkers (8.91%). Most of the potential biomarkers reported were blood-based (79.2%). Use of lymphocytes as a model to investigate ME/CFS pathology was prominent among immune-based biomarkers. Most biomarkers had secondary (43.56%) or tertiary (54.47%) selectivity, which is the ability for the biomarker to identify a disease-causing agent, and a moderate (59.40%) to complex (39.60%) ease-of-detection, including the requirement of specialised equipment.