Association of Sinonasal Inflammation With Functional Brain Connectivity 2021


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Association of Sinonasal Inflammation With Functional Brain Connectivity | Neurology | JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery | JAMA Network

Conclusions and Relevance
In this case-control study, participants with sinonasal inflammation showed decreased brain connectivity within a major functional hub with a central role in modulating cognition.

This region also shows increased connectivity to areas that are activated during introspective and self-referential processing and decreased connectivity to areas involved in detection and response to stimuli.

Future prospective studies are warranted to determine the applicability of these findings to a clinical chronic rhinosinusitis population.


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Interesting. I keep thinking I have allergies, but perhaps it's the above. Although, in all honesty, everyone where I live soon develops allergies. I don't think man was to pick up and fly thousands of least the original model of man.

Thanks for keeping us informed @pattismith. This explains why allergy meds don't work for so many of us.
Pesky little things, those sinuses. Yours, Lenora


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some other articles make a link between the nose and brain diseases.

The healthy nasal cavity is colonised with Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria on the phylum level, and Bifidobacterium, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Dolosigranulum and Moraxella on the genus level [23,24].

The nasal cavity may also harbour some pathogenic bacteria in a healthy status, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Hemophilus influenza [25]. However, these are opportunistic bacteria, therefore, only cause significant illness if a person becomes immunocompromised [26].

Similar to the intestine, changes in nasal microbiome homeostasis may play a significant role in disease progressions, such as CRS, allergic rhinitis, and asthma [27].

This dysbiosis is characterised by a reduced population of beneficial bacteria and the overgrowth of pathogens.

Bacterial dysbiosis may start at early infancy or develop later in life.

For example, Teo et al. observed nasopharyngeal bacteria of infants in their first year and showed that certain bacterial composition in the nasopharynx is a predictor of future development of asthma in these infants, with Streptococcus species specifically the main contributor to this outcome [28].


Moreover, aging plays a critical role in shifting the nasal microbiome in health and disease.

In adulthood, the microbiota of the nasal cavity is distinct from the microbial community in other parts of the upper respiratory tract; the microbial composition remains relatively constant throughout adulthood [30].

However, alteration in the nasal microbiota has been observed in middle-aged individuals.

In healthy adults aged 40–65 years, the microbiota is altered and dominated by Staphylococcus, Cutibacterium and Corynebacterium [31].

The bacterial composition changes again in people aged 65 years and over, and is dominated by oropharyngeal bacteria [32,33].

The spread of bacteria from the distinct niche of the oropharynx upwards to the nasopharyngeal region can be due to the weakening of the immune system with aging (immunosenescence), leading to increased pro-inflammatory markers, lowered ability to manage immune stress, and the loss of bacterial niches and decreased bacterial diversity [32]

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Alzheimer’s Disease—A Possible Role for the Nasal Microbiome in Causing Neurodegeneration in the Elderly | HTML (

Here a picture where we can see how easily inflammation can spread from the nose:the olfactory bulb to the limbic system (hypothalamus/hypocampus/amygdala)