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What’s in Your Gut?: news from UCSD microbiome research

Discussion in 'Other Health News and Research' started by ebethc, May 17, 2018.

  1. ebethc

    ebethc Senior Member

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    the antibiotic bit is especially interesting!

    =
    http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/feature/whats-in-your-gut
    Big data dump from the world’s largest citizen science microbiome project reveals how factors such as diet, antibiotics and mental health status can influence the microbial and molecular makeup of your gut


    Emerging trends
    All of the data collected by the American Gut Project are publicly available, without participants’ identifying information. This open access approach allows researchers around the world to mine the data for meaningful associations between factors such as diet, exercise, lifestyle, microbial makeup and health. Here are a few observations that have emerged so far:

    Diet. The number of plant types in a person’s diet plays a role in the diversity of his or her gut microbiome—the number of different types of bacteria living there. No matter the diet they prescribed to (vegetarian, vegan, etc.), participants who ate more than 30 different plant types per week (41 people) had gut microbiomes that were more diverse than those who ate 10 or fewer types of plants per week (44 people). The gut samples of these two groups also differed in the types of molecules present.

    Antibiotics. The gut microbiomes of American Gut Project participants who reported that they took antibiotics in the past month (139 people) were, as predicted, less diverse than people who reported that they had not taken antibiotics in the last year (117 people). But, paradoxically, people who had taken antibiotics recently had significantly greater diversity in the types of chemicals in their gut samples than those who had not taken antibiotics in the past year.

    The participants who ate more than 30 plants per week also had fewer antibiotic resistance genes in their gut microbiomes than people who ate 10 or fewer plants. In other words, the bacteria living in the guts of the plant-lovers had fewer genes that encode the molecular pumps that help the bacteria avoid antibiotics. This study didn’t address why this might be the case, but the researchers think it could be because people who eat fewer plants may instead be eating more meat from antibiotic-treated animals or processed foods with antibiotics added as a preservative, which may favor the survival of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Mental health. The American Gut Project researchers also examined the gut microbiomes of 125 people who reported having a mental health disorder, such as depression, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or bipolar disorder. They matched each of these participants to individuals who did not have a mental health disorder, but did have other major factors in common, such as country, age, sex and body mass index. The team found that people with a mental disorder had more in common with other people with mental disorders, in terms of the bacteria makeup of their gut microbiomes, than they did with their mentally healthy pairs. The observation held true in both U.S. and UK populations, in males and females, and across age groups. In addition, the research team found some indications that specific bacteria types may be more common in people with depression than people who do not have the condition.
     
  2. Murph

    Murph :)

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    Fascinating!

    30 plants seems like a lot (especially for someone on a fodmap diet!)Here's an extract from the paper on how they got subjects to count.

    In an average week, how many different plants do you eat? (e.g., if you consume a can of soup that contains carrots, potatoes, and onion, you can count this as 3 different plants; if you consume multigrain bread, each different grain counts as a plant. Include all fruits in the total)”

    I tried to count what I'd eat in a normal week and got as far as 19, including some pretty small ingredients that go in for flavour!

    peanut, walnut, banana, orange, spinach, broccoli, capsicum, olive, tomato, potato, zucchini, kale, green beans, ginger, chilli, spelt, oats, rice, corn

    (respondent bias also seems like a risk here. These are the ingredients I use regularly but if I wanted to get more I could definitely think of things I eat only sometimes.)
     
    Last edited: May 17, 2018
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  3. ebethc

    ebethc Senior Member

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    @Murph

    It IS a lot of veggies! chopped salads & ratatouille are it, I guess :)
     
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  4. CreativeB

    CreativeB

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    Interesting that it counts plants that have been processed and not just fresh fruit and veg
     
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  5. pamojja

    pamojja Senior Member

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    When I got PAD almost 10 years ago I looked in different diets. And was fascinated by the detail that traditional diets associated with longevity contained easily a 100 different natural foods within a year, each again with up to 100, in most cases not even identified yet, phyto-nutrients.

    Tried sort of replicating that by supplemented plant extracts (from up to 80 different plants). About 6 year that got another boost by adding in Ayurvedic plant extracts (an other 130 plants, though from 1 g/d down to most in mg amounts only).

    Plants I eat almost every of the last few weeks: sauerkraut, red cabbage, pickled cucumber, olives, beets, bitter gourd, bell peppers, carrots, tomato paste, chickpeas, blueberries, apples, oranges, macadamia, walnut, hazelnut, pekan nut, flax seed, pumpkin seed, black seed, coconut, spirulina, cocoa powder, coffee beans, tulsi tea, red wine (eggs, mackerel, sardines, honey, curds). Therefore an other ~20.

    Seasonal variation is a weak point in my diet. Though also get a little bit of that through my yearly 6-weeks vacations to South-India, where I mostly eat in Restaurants catering for locals (with so many curries with so different vegetables, I cannot even name).

    When I got my free ubiome results last year, I was a bid surprised by 4 things:

    1. Got a more diverse microbiome than 93% of all tested, in complete mismatch to my actual bad health.
    2. Though since 10 years having mainly been moderately low-carb (the 30 years before vegan), my microbiome matches closest to that of raw food eaters. And by predicted function, that of a drinker :confused:
    3. Though my lower than normal Bacteroidetes would predict otherwise, I've been skinny all my life (BMI of ~20)
    4. Despite eating probiotics daily, none are found in my microbiome. Comparing it to Hadza and Italian in this study, mine seems to resemble closer that from the Hadza.

    Though after giving it a bid more thought, 1 and 2 is perfectly explained through the diversity of all powders raw (and the drinker with a NAFDL almost resolved). Fascinating.
     
    Last edited: May 18, 2018
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  6. Wishful

    Wishful Senior Member

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    That just goes to show that health marketing claims have little to do with reality. The marketers can claim whatever wonderful things for their products, but the person who eats mostly Kraft dinner might be healthier than the person who eats a paleo diet and takes dozens of health supplements daily. Diet or supplements can potentially make a difference in a person's health, but it's specific to the individual. My guess is that most of the supplements taken don't make a real difference in most people's health. I have found two that are critical to my health (vs ME symptoms), so I'm not saying 'don't bother trying things'. Just observe whether they really help, and test them regularly in case they've stopped helping.
     
  7. ebethc

    ebethc Senior Member

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    the past few years I've tried dozens of supplements, "n=1 experiments" if you will... It's been exhausting, expensive and enlightening... i've finally found some that help.. I think it can be helpful in determining some root causes, too... Like taking betaine hcl w pepsin w meat has made a huge difference for me (previously tried a vegan diet, which helped my ibs, but I felt weak all the time)... Also, tried arginine, which made me feel fantastic then worst crash ever...so, there's definitely something to the martin pall theories for me.. comparing sick ppl to the general population is pointless..
     
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  8. ebethc

    ebethc Senior Member

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    it's frustrating how little is known about the microbiome.... it seems like such a contradiction at this point, but I'm sure there will be an explanation some day.. hopefully soon.


    isn't high firmicutes associated w lower weight? I can never remember..


    one of the criticisms of probiotics is that they don't stay in your system... I think that soil based organisms may be the exception (eg prescript assist) so that may be something to investigate... changing diet it best, and I think adding prebiotics... e.g., galactooligosaccharides supposedly increases bifido bacteria... Galactomune is a product that has this, but it's been out at amazon.. It's the next thing I want to try
     
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  9. Wishful

    Wishful Senior Member

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    For me, l-carnitine allowed me to eat meat again. Carnitine transports fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane. I never figured out why having extra fatty acids in the cytoplasm not transported into the mitochondria would cause a problem, but it was an interesting observation. After a few months of supplemental carnitine, I no longer had problems with meats.

    I've tried lots of supplements and herbal remedies too. I even tried ones that I thought logically would make the symptoms worse (some did, some didn't), just to learn more about the 'black box' of ME/CFS. I was hoping that I'd discover something useful for researchers, but since we all seem to have widely different responses to various chemicals, it's probably not as useful as I'd hoped. I was hoping that my posting about cumin as a reliable PEM blocker would result in many ME/CFS victims finding that it worked for them too, which would lead researchers to a useful discovery. Alas, only a couple of people reported trying it, with indifferent results, so no breakthrough there. Back to the drawing board to find something that works reliably for the majority. Who designed this stupid disease anyway? :grumpy:
     
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  10. pamojja

    pamojja Senior Member

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    Wait a minute! My post mislead you to completely wrong assumptions. It is true that I still suffer from exhaustion, back-pain and concentration difficulties after more than 5 hrs of mental work, or that I need at least 10 hrs of sleep, still unrefreshing. Or PEM till I have a full day of rest. However, not considering the ubiome result (which was for free), otherwise my clean diet and much, much more than only a dozen supplements were worth every penny for the following reasons:
    1. first of all: it reversed a 60% walking disability from PAD !!! (only 3-400m of pain-free walking distance)
    2. reversed a cystitis circumscripta of the bladder
    3. .. 2 non-circulated nodules on the right edge of the liver (5 + 8mm; fatty liver on ultrasound gone too),
    4. .. one additional tubercle (6mm) of the left lung; the older of the right lung (9mm) remaining
    5. .. and a chronic bronchitis, while the at that time diagnosed COPD remained asymptomatic
    6. keept prediabetes,
    7. .. hay-fever,
    8. .. muscle-cramps,
    9. .. and CKD stage 1 in check,
    10. ceased psoriasis,
    11. .. retinal migraine flare-ups,
    12. .. and angina-like chest pains
    13. provided sun-burn protection without suncream
    14. but overall allowing me staying still alive and able to come up for my own living (50% employment), counter the prediction of my initially diagnosing internist (who originally said, I could eat as much greens I wanted, that wouldn't change anything about my high mortality and disability)
    Multiples times worth every penny! - In my eyes even miraculous remissions, where standard of care has naught to offer. This experience with a form of CVD - the number one killer - which had a century of research and countless billions in funding, with still no cure, also doesn't make me hope that conventional medicine would ever be able to offer a solution to ME/CFS.

    However, till now no conceivable effect on the remaining ME/CFS symptoms from supplements in my experience. On the other side, no crash ever from any supplement, so different from many here.
     
    Last edited: May 19, 2018 at 8:30 AM
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  11. pamojja

    pamojja Senior Member

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    Only learned it from my ubiome results, which by the way is linked to in my quote above only one click away to read.
     
    Last edited: May 19, 2018 at 6:45 AM

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