Page 76 of the book Shiitake: The Healing Mushroom "Schizophyllan, or SPG, is chemically related to lentinan and has a similar structure. SPG is derived from the mycelium of suehoritake, a smallfanshaped mushroom (Schizaphyllum commune) that appears like little shells of white lace. Also known as sizofiran, SPG is one of a large number of structurally related polysaccharides known as beta-glucans. Now a product of Kaken Pharmaceutical of Tokyo, it has shown immunologic activities in animals and benefits to cancer patients similar to that of lentinan. True to its roots in folk medicine, for gynecological diseases SPG is now largely used in the treatment of cervical cancer. In the spring of 1992, Dr. Atsushi Uchida of Kyoto University announced that he had tested the glucan in eleven Japanese CFS patients, and ten had clearly shown improvements. Of these, three were able to return to work. The other seven, who were so ill they couldn’t even maintain household chores or walk up a flight of stairs, all had resumed a “regular life”. For all ten, NK cell activity levels were restored to “normal”. By the summer of 1993, Dr. Uchida had treated over thirty patients with SPG, some of them Americans and Canadians. About half of them had made a complete recovery from the disease for over six months and were living a normal life. These patients had had severe cases. Before SPG, they had been largely confined to home. Whatever treatment they had received previously was without any effect in improving their symptoms. But after one to two months of SPG daily (20mg a day, orally), for more than 90 percent, the debilitating fatigue was either reduced or entirely gone, without any side effects from the treatment. NK cell activity was restored in consistent parallel to the abatement of symptoms. It is interesting to note that as with patients with major depression, there were signs of an overactive immune system. For example, the rate at which lymphocytes were produced in the blood was elevated, but after treatment the rate normalized. Serum levels of interleukin 2 were also elevated, returning to normal after SPG. Elevated levels of interleukin 2 receptor-bearing cells would tend to indicate immune system activation, since these receptors are found on the membrane of T-cells in an activated state. However, the responsiveness of T-cells to activations by interleukin 2 only returned in the CFS patients after therapy with SPG…"