Choline on the Brain? A Guide to Choline in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
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Discussion in 'General ME/CFS News' started by Countrygirl, Mar 4, 2018.

  1. Countrygirl

    Countrygirl Senior Member

    Some interesting reading here.

    ...All about the DIRE, Relapsing-Remitting NEUROIMMUNE Illness I call DEBILITATING IMMUNOPATHIC RELAPSING ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, variously known as CFS, CFIDS, ME, Low Natural Killer Cell Disease...

    Wednesday, February 21, 2018
    ME/CFS:DIRE PANDEMIC, Pandemonium Outcries for Research and Therapeutics[/paste:font]

    by Helen Borel,RN,MFA,PhD

    In 1992, I reported that, according to Landay et al. in a 1991 issue of Lancet (1)"An increasing frequency of CFS:DIRE is occurring in Australia, the United States, Britain and around the world."

    And that a 1989 Summary of CFS:DIRE by Komaroff and Goldenberg in the Journal of
    Rheumatology (2) concluded that "Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by
    chronic, debilitating fatigue lasting greater than 6 months. Frequent chronic and recurrent findings include fever, pharyngitis, myalgias, adenopathy, arthralgias, difficulties in cognition and disorders of mood. In the majority of patients, the illness starts suddenly with an acute, 'flu-like' illness."

    Laboratory Abnormalities Seen with Some Frequency
    Although not observed in all CFS:DIRE patients, these laboratory anomalies occur often
    enough in such sufferers, they reported: "...lymphocytosis, atypical lymphocytosis, monocytosis, eleva-tion of hepatocellular enzymes, low levels of antinuclear antibodies, varying levels of antithyroid antibodies, partial hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated CD4:CD8 ratio, decreased cytolytic activity of natural killer cells, and low levels of immune complexes." (2)

    Here it is important to note that autoimmune phenomena, like the presence of antinuclear antibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, are also characteristic of lupus.

    The Herpesviruses Implicated in Clinical and Serologic Studies
    According to Komoroff and Goldenberg (2), clinical and serologic studies "suggest an association of CFS with all of the human herpesviruses, particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the recently discovered...human herpesvirus 6 [though] neither
    EBV nor HHV-6 has yet been shown to play a causal role in this illness."

    After studying 350 CFS:DIRE patients over a 3-year period, these clinician-researchers (2) reported: "All of them have been ill for at least 6 months. The main symptom is fatigue. The typical patient has been ill for 2.9 years (as of January, 1988); some have been ill for much longer. About 25% describe themselves as regularly bedridden or shut-in, unable to work. About one third can work only part-time. Before they became ill, the patients perceived that they typically were more energetic than most of their friends."

    They further reported that in about 85% of the patients, "The chronic illness has followed the sudden onset of an acute 'flu-like' illness characterized by fever, pharyngitis, adenopathy, myalgias and related symptoms. Unlike the usual 'flu,' the patients state they have never fully recovered from this illness....20-50% experience chronic postexertional malaise and recurrent night sweats."

    High Prevalence of Allergy in ME/CFS:DIRE Patients
    Allergy is so prevalent in CFS:DIRE that these investigators (2) emphasized: "On medical history, the only clearly striking finding is a high frequency of atopic or allergic illness (in about 50 to 70%)."

    Low Basal Body Temperature in Many of these Patients
    On clinical examination, Komoroff and Goldenberg (2) found that "In 15-50% of patients there are fevers, [in others] unusually low basal body temperature (below 97 degrees Fahrenheit); posterior cervical adenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, which usually disappears after the first 3 months of illness."

    Source of the Whole Array of Symptoms - Immune System Hyperactivation
    About immune system hyperactivation, these researchers (2) argue that "There is growing speculation that much of the morbidity of CFS - especially the fatigue, fevers, adenopathy, cognitive disorders and mood disorders - comes from a subtle, generalized chronic activation of the immune system, particularly the elaboration of several cytokines. Some preliminary data support this hypothesis."

    On Possible Viral Etiologies

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