This is an interesting study, and it answers some of the questions I've asked in the past about whether we have any MLV-like sequences in our genome. (Answer = we do.) The study looks for MLV-like antibodies in patients with psychosis and schizophrenia. It finds increased levels of antibodies in patients with psychosis than in healthy controls, but did not find any in patients with schizophrenia. They used assays to look for IgG antibodies to murine leukemia virus (MuLV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) by enzyme immunoassay utilizing whole virus and viral components. But they do not seem to be concluding that there is an MLV infection, or other retrovirus infection, but they seem to be suggesting that there is an upregulation of MLV-like human endogenous retrovirus proteins. I think this could potentially have implications for the antibodies found in ME patients. Antibodies to retroviruses in recent onset psychosis and multi-episode schizophrenia. Dickerson F, Lillehoj E, Stallings C, Wiley M, Origoni A, Vaughan C, Khushalani S, Sabunciyan S, Yolken R. The Stanley Research Program at Sheppard Pratt, Baltimore, MD, USA. Schizophrenia Research, 30 April 2012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22542615 "BACKGROUND:Immunological abnormalities involving the upregulation of endogenous retroviruses have been associated with schizophrenia in small studies." "RESULTS: Compared with controls, individuals with recent onset of psychosis had increased levels of antibodies to MPMV and MuLV ... and increased antibody levels for defined portions of the MPMV and MuLV gag, pol and env proteins. The specificity of these antibodies was confirmed by Western blotting. Individuals with multi-episode schizophrenia did not show elevated antibody levels to any of the retroviruses measured. Infectious retroviruses were not detected in the blood of any participants." This answered my question: "Homology analyses indicated that there are multiple regions of the human genome homologous with MPMV and MuLV proteins, the highest being with the MuLV gag protein." "CONCLUSIONS: Antibodies to retroviral proteins are elevated in individuals with recent onset psychosis but not in individuals with multi-episode schizophrenia. The immunopathological consequences of this antibody response should be the subject of additional studies."