Biomarkers for ME/CFS

I have put together what I found for variances, based in part of studies and partly by extensive contacts with many suffering from ME/CFS. Feel free to fill in the comment field. Please indicate the source if you consider that the majority has just this deviation. I'll update later.

NK cells
We know in several studies demonstrated that NK cells have low activity. Some believe therefore that immunomodulatory drugs may serve to increase NK cell activity and thus the body's own interferon gamma production required for the macrophages to function.

CD4 + T cells
We know that there are changes in the CD4 + T cells that can turn the T cell-mediated immunity in the end of an immune response and suppress autoreactive T cells.

CD8 + T cells
We know that in several studies appearing lack of CD8 + T cells, which impairs the adaptive immune system. They are an important defense against viruses and bacteria. There is also a connection with the MS in which they showed that the disease is more difficult the lower the level of CD8 + T-cells you have.

Gene mutation in the MTHFR 677 is relatively common.Vitamin B12 and folic acid are more difficult to be converted to methylated form. It seems those who have gene mutations feel better by subcutaneous methylcobalamin and to use methylfolate instead of folic acid. It is estimated that about half of all people with ME/CFS feel better with this type of treatment although it can not be demonstrated any lack of B12 / B9 in blood. It seems unusual to take MTHFR test.

Vitamins and mineral deficiencies
Many have often low levels of vitamin D. Deficiency include magnesium, zinc, calcium, potassium and iron are present.

Low blood volume = POTS
The evidence suggests that a majority of ME/CFS patients have low blood volume (hypovolemia), which can cause POTS, a disease characterized by orthostatic intolerance.

Hormone Imbalance
It is common with the imbalance in the endocrine system. High TSH levels occur. Low DHEA and cortisol levels may be present. It is uncertain then have undergone such kind of tests.

Imbalance in the gut - Dysbiosis
Low number of lactobacillus and the high number e.colibacterias seems to be prevalent among the ME/CFS patients undergoing foreign intestinal samples (normally offered not in Sweden). The presence of an imbalance in the intestinal flora (dysbiosis) among ME sufferers appear to be more the rule than the exception. There is indication that many ME/ CFS also has high histamine levels, which can be due to lack of DAO-enzyme. Allergies are fairly common.

AMPK enzyme
Researchers in Britain have found that patients with ME (Fukuda) has a defect in a molecule associated with the production of a protein called AMP kinase (AMPK). The enzyme is important for endurance in the muscles. Quercetine and medicine for diabetes 2 (Metformin Bluefish) have been shown to influence the activity of AMPK enzyme.

Post-Extertional Malaise (PEM) demonstrated - Variations in oxygen uptake
At the two-day cycle test is a significant difference of impaired oxygen uptake. The most important measurements are aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (VO2AT).

Heat Shock Protein 60
Professor Jonas Blomberg has found an increased frequency of a particular kind of auto-antibodies directed against a portion of the antigen.

Cytokine abnormalities
We know that there is too much of several pro-inflammatory cytokines eg IL-1, IL-6 and IL-17A (Hornig). Fibromyalgia patients have been shown to have 3-fold higher levels of IL-8 (Kadetoff). That ME/CFS is therefore a neuro-inflammatory disease seems clear. It is unclear what causes the inflammation. Currently a study is underway in the Netherlands regarding the IL-1 inhibitors. The study will be completed in December.
We know that there are lower levels of IL-10, which is an anti-inflammatory cytokine


Good list. Dr. Lucinda Bateman noted spots on MRI. I can only refer to them as 'stress spots', as mine were called. I heard her comments on this 2014 vid.
#Valentinj - I am not sure, but it seems to be rather common, but I really don´t know. Paul Andersons study is from 2012, but I don´t think there are any difference today.

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