Have you had recent Xrays/MRI's in the last last 5 years of body parts that are causing chronic pain? The reason I ask is because every time I get an Xray or MRI done there is arthritis or torn ligaments or bone loss or Ischemic change found. I am convinced that hypovolemia(low blood volume) or over sized veins is the very cause of all the above. So in my case if I soon do not find an effective way to get adequate blood supply throughout my body and brain I'm going to continue to slowly but surely rot away. I have the Hyperadrenergic with late stage of Neuromediated form of POTS.. I was diagnosed by 2 of the best cardiac electrophysiologists in the US. Now the best way to get blood going quickly as of now to where it is supposed to go is Adderall 1st and foremost especially if you're lacking appropriate flow to the brain in my case. Adderall tightens your veins instantly therefore making the blood you do have close to as useful as one with healthy normal blood volume.. How do I know this? Easy I'm on the strongest pain meds in the world and they do not relieve my "widespread"pain near what Adderall does.. If Adderall is not an option.. Midodrine is the only med somewhat similar to Adderall except Midodrine does not cross the blood-brain barrier I however need Adderall since my brain MRI shows probable chronic ischemic change and the fact that I have ADD.. Those of you who have Dysautonomia with a lot of pain to go with it should get xrays/mri's of every body part that bothers you including the brain if you have significant cognitive issues.. This is my own but strong opinion of course..