I have no idea where to post this Most people have heard of the following in the context of MAD COW DISEASE HIV encephalopathy and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) are the neurologic complications that arise from primary HIV infection, others include vacuolar myelopathy, peripheral neuropathies, and polymyositis. HIV encephalopathy is part of the acute HIV syndrome during seroconversion. HIV-associated progressive encephalopathy (HPE) is a syndrome complex with cognitive, motor, and behavioral features seen in children. ADC, also known as HIV-associated dementia complex (HAD), is characterized by cognitive, motor, and behavioral features in adults, which usually develops in advanced AIDS when CD4+ lymphocyte counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. HIV neuroinvasion: HIV is thought to enter the brain via HIV-infected monocytes and other infected CD4+ cells, which then differentiate into macrophages . The virus replicates in these cells and can then, in theory, infect other cells, such as MICROGLIA oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and neurons; macrophages and microglia are the most common. Encephalopathy alters brain function and/or structure. It may be caused by an infectious agent (bacteria, virus, or prion), metabolic or mitochondrial dysfunction. The hallmark of encephalopathy is an altered mental state. Depending on the type and severity of encephalopathy, common neurological symptoms are loss of cognitive function, subtle personality changes, inability to concentrate, lethargy, and depressed consciousness. Other neurological signs may include myoclonus (involuntary twitching of a muscle or group of muscles), asterixis (abrupt loss of muscle tone, quickly restored), nystagmus (rapid, involuntary eye movement), tremor, seizures, jactitation (restless picking at things characteristic of severe infection), and respiratory abnormalities such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration (cyclic waxing and waning of tidal volume), apneustic respirations, and post-hypercapnic apnea.