With all my concern over methylation lately, I haven't really been paying much attention to the Krebs cycle and how supporting it's components might benefit me...until now. With all respect to Mr Krebs, it may be a disservice to call it that over it's other name - The Citric Acid Cycle. That name made a light bulb go off. I just realized that for years I've heard nutritionist say "make sure to eat your fruits and vegetable" and I've really only been eating vegetables and not much fruit. I haven't been getting enough Citric Acid. I put a wedge of lemon in water. I should be putting the whole lemon in there and doing it a few times a day. Also, there's the chelating effect of Citric Acid which could help with methylation if there is a lead or aluminum block in that cycle. If it can remove limescale from a boiler and affect ion-exhchange separate for the Manhattan Project (below), I guess it can get a few pesky heavy metals out of my body. Well, I guess it's about time to head off to the grocery to stock up on lemons and limes (highest for C-Acid) berries and apples (highest in malic acid, another component of Citric Acid Cycle). I believe Rich mentioned that berries also are a natural source of methylfolate. Any other board comments on Krebs (Citric Acid Cycle) and how to improve it's functioning would be greatly appreciated. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The citric acid cycle — also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), the Krebs cycle, or the Szent-Györgyi–Krebs cycle — is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidization of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide. In addition, the cycle provides precursors including certain amino acids as well as the reducing agent NADH that is used in numerous biochemical reactions. Its central importance to many biochemical pathways suggests that it was one of the earliest established components of cellular metabolism and may have originated abiogenically. The name of this metabolic pathway is derived from citric acid (a type of tricarboxylic acid) that is first consumed and then regenerated by this sequence of reactions to complete the cycle. In addition, the cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA) and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, and produces carbon dioxide. The NADH generated by the TCA cycle is fed into the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. The net result of these two closely linked pathways is the oxidation of nutrients to produce usable energy in the form of ATP. In eukaryotic cells, the citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion. Bacteria also use the TCA cycle to generate energy, but since they lack mitochondria, the reaction sequence is performed in the cytosol with the proton gradient for ATP production being across the plasma membrane rather than the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. The components and reactions of the citric acid cycle were established in the 1930s by seminal work from the Nobel laureates Albert Szent-Györgyi and Hans Adolf Krebs. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Citric_acid_cycle_with_aconitate_2.svg Citric Acid: biochemistry, it is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of almost all living things. It also serves as an environmentally benign cleaning agent and acts as an antioxidant. Citric acid exists in a variety of fruits and vegetables, but it is most concentrated in lemons and limes, where it can comprise as much as 8 percent of the dry weight of the fruit. Citrate, the conjugate base of citric acid is one of a series of compounds involved in the physiological oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and water. Citric acid is an excellent chelating agent, binding metals. It is used to remove limescale from boilers and evaporators. It can be used to soften water, which makes it useful in soaps and laundry detergents. By chelating the metals in hard water, it lets these cleaners produce foam and work better without need for water softening. Citric acid is the active ingredient in some bathroom and kitchen cleaning solutions. A solution with a 6% concentration of citric acid will remove hard water stains from glass without scrubbing. In industry, it is used to dissolve rust from steel. Citric acid can be used in shampoo to wash out wax and coloring from the hair. Illustrative of its chelating abilities, citric acid was the first successful eluant used for total ion-exchange separation of the lanthanides, during the Manhattan Project in the 1940s. In the 1950s, it was replaced by the far more efficient EDTA. It can be used to slow setting of Portland cement. It can delay setting time substantially. **Note: Elution is a term used in analytical and organic chemistry to describe the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent (as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions).