New era for ME/CFS research as top cytokine study attracts media headlines
The immune systems of patients who have recently developed ME/CFS look markedly different from those who have been ill for much longer, according to a major new study from Drs. Ian Lipkin and Mady Hornig at Columbia University. This shift in immune function hadn’t been seen before.
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Staph vaccine to treat CFS??

Discussion in 'Latest ME/CFS Research' started by SpecialK82, May 4, 2010.

  1. SpecialK82

    SpecialK82 Senior Member

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  2. Hope123

    Hope123 Senior Member

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    Looked at this a while ago.

    The paper I read was mostly based on lab values it seems and not so much on how people were feeling/ function. That's what I took from it.
    It wasn't clear and I wasn't impressed.

    But your link goes to another paper so I'll also try to take a look again. Thanks for bringing it to my attention.

    The first abstract is the one I read. The second, I haven't read. I don't have a full copy of the second paper so if anyone has it, please PM me. Of note, everyone in the trial had FM and CFS so I don't know how much it applies to plain CFS given Fukuda definition was used. My guess is the vaccine stimulates some immune response perhaps but it's tricky given that rituximab (which suppresses immune response) also has been show to have a beneficial effect. But I'm not going to argue with any success.

    1. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004 Feb;23(2):98-105. Epub 2004 Jan 20.
    Immune modulation with a staphylococcal preparation in fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue syndrome: relation between antibody levels and clinical improvement.

    Zachrisson O, Colque-Navarro P, Gottfries CG, Regland B, Mllby R.

    Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, SU/Mlndal, 43180 Mlndal, Sweden. olof.zachrisson@neuro.gu.se
    Abstract

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the serological response to treatment with staphylococcal vaccine in fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue syndrome patients and to explore the relationship between serological response and clinical effect. Twenty-eight patients, half of whom served as controls, were recruited from a 6-month randomised trial in which repeated administration of the staphylococcal toxoid vaccine Staphypan Berna (Berna Biotech, Switzerland) was tested against placebo. Antibody status against extracellular toxins/enzymes, cell-wall components, and enterotoxins was evaluated at baseline and at endpoint. The clinical response to treatment was recorded in rating scales. In the group receiving active treatment, significant serological changes were recorded, whereas no significant changes were found in controls. Treatment led to a significantly increased capacity of serum to neutralise alpha-toxin and a significant increase in serum IgG to alpha-toxin and lipase. Furthermore, the increase in these parameters combined paralleled the improvement in clinical outcome. Thus, the greater the serological response, the greater was the clinical effect. In conclusion, this explorative study has shown that repeated administration of the Staphypan Berna vaccine in patients with fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue syndrome causes a serological response to several staphylococcal antigens, particularly to certain extracellular toxins and enzymes. The results further show that this response is related to the clinical outcome of treatment.

    PMID: 14735403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    2. Eur J Pain. 2002;6(6):455-66.
    Treatment with staphylococcus toxoid in fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue syndrome--a randomised controlled trial.

    Zachrisson O, Regland B, Jahreskog M, Jonsson M, Kron M, Gottfries CG.

    Psychiatry Section, Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, Gteborg University, Gteborg, Sweden. olof.zachrisson@neuro.gu.se
    Abstract

    We have previously conducted a small treatment study on staphylococcus toxoid in fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The aim of the present study was to further assess the efficacy of the staphylococcus toxoid preparation Staphypan Berna (SB) during 6 months in FM/CFS patients. One hundred consecutively referred patients fulfilling the ACR criteria for FM and the 1994 CDC criteria for CFS were randomised to receive active drug or placebo. Treatment included weekly injections containing 0.1 ml, 0.2 ml, 0.3 ml, 0.4 ml, 0.6 ml, 0.8 ml, 0.9 ml, and 1.0 ml SB or coloured sterile water, followed by booster doses given 4-weekly until endpoint. Main outcome measures were the proportion of responders according to global ratings and the proportion of patients with a symptom reduction of > or =50% on a 15-item subscale derived from the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale (CPRS). The treatment was well tolerated. Intention-to-treat analysis showed 32/49 (65%) responders in the SB group compared to 9/49 (18%) in the placebo group (P<0.001). Sixteen patients (33%) in the SB group reduced their CPRS scores by at least 50% compared to five patients (10%) in the placebo group (P< 0.01). Mean change score on the CPRS (95% confidence interval) was 10.0 (6.7-13.3) in the SB group and 3.9 (1.1-6.6) in the placebo group (P<0.01). An increase in CPRS symptoms at withdrawal was noted in the SB group. In conclusion, treatment with staphylococcus toxoid injections over 6 months led to significant improvement in patients with FM and CFS. Maintenance treatment is required to prevent relapse.

    PMID: 12413434 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
     
  3. Dolphin

    Dolphin Senior Member

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    (2006) Long-Term Treatment with a Staphylococcus Toxoid Vaccine in FMS & CFS

    Another paper

     
  4. Dolphin

    Dolphin Senior Member

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    Post on Co-Cure, Sept 2009:

     
  5. Dolphin

    Dolphin Senior Member

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    Sept 2009

    http://www.meassociation.org.uk/ind...e-patients-about-a-treatment-for-m&Itemid=222

     
  6. SpecialK82

    SpecialK82 Senior Member

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    Thanks so much Hope and tomk for the additional links and info. You're right Hope that they did not seperate CFS from FM unfortunately.

    It's interesting that a vaccine may have caused improvement when Judy Mikovits has theorized that vaccines may be a trigger for XMRV as it causes an up-regulation of the immune system where the virus hangs out.

    I would love for WPI to look into this study and perhaps perform their own.
     
  7. oerganix

    oerganix Senior Member

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    I notice these guys are in the "Psychiatry Section" of their University, so I wonder about the cohort they used; additionally, their use of the term FM/CFS indicates they don't differentiate the two illnesses.

    About their cohort: "patients fulfilling the ACR criteria for FM and the 1994 CDC criteria".

    What is the "ACR criteria" for FM? And isn't the 1994 CDC criteria the "empirical definition" that sweeps millions with depression and simple "chronic fatigue", without the syndrome, into the definition? Please correct me if I'm wrong.
     
  8. Dolphin

    Dolphin Senior Member

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    The empirical criteria are a bastardized form of the 1994 criteria. The empiric criteria give a prevalence of 2.54% of the population but using similar methodology, the prevalence of the 1994 criteria was 0.422% and 0.235%. The 1994 criteria are used in the vast bulk of CFS research.
     
  9. Hip

    Hip Senior Member

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    I don't know if this is the original company that manufactured the staphylococcus toxoid vaccine, but I came across this product Polystafana made by Czech company Sevapharma.

    However, I cannot see Polystafana listed in their products drop down menu.


    Question: one thing that is not clear to me: will staphylococcus toxoid vaccine benefit everyone with CFS, or only CFS patients that have staphylococcus co-infections (such as a staphylococcus aureus population in their intestines)?

    If the staphylococcus toxoid vaccine benefits everyone with CFS, then perhaps it is not the anti-bacterial action of the vaccine, but some other mechanism.

    Staphylococcus toxoid vaccine comprises 80% alpha toxin. Alpha toxin is also called alpha hemolysin.

    Now, alpha toxin actually bores microscopic holes into the membranes of human cells (Ref: here). The effect of this is that it allows small molecules to enter human cells (although staphylococcus bacteria themselves make alpha toxin in oder to destroy human immune cells).

    So perhaps the mechanism behind the benefit of staphylococcus toxoid vaccine on CFS is related to its ability to make holes in our cells, rather than its anti-bacterial action against staphylococcus???
     
  10. fairlight

    fairlight

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  11. SpecialK82

    SpecialK82 Senior Member

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    Thanks fairlight - I haven't heard a connection with nickel allergy and CFS/FM before. Great to see another study with good results. It makes me wonder if we reduce the amount of nickel we ingest (chocolate, nuts, spinach, oatmeal, etc. as suggested) if we would see improvements even without the staph vaccine?

    Hip - you brings up good questions - I got the idea that it is not necessarily treating staph but that it is only causing the immune system to act differently - however, if that is the case, then maybe some other vaccines would work the same way, I wish the researchers had speculated why it was working.

    It brings up many more issues, could we have a staph problem......
     
  12. fairlight

    fairlight

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    Has anyone found a resource where we can get this vaccine? I think it's given sub Q so we could give it to oursleves. I think it's a little strange that they've been using the vaccine on some patients for 5-10 years and are just now sharing when they can't get it..
     
  13. Hip

    Hip Senior Member

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    Yeah, you are right in saying that nobody has looked in depth into the reason why staphylococcus vaccine (which comprises 80% alpha toxin) has been beneficial to CFS patients.

    As you say, we may just have a major staphylococcus problem. This study of CFS patients found that treatment with staphylococcus vaccine led to a significantly increased capacity of the blood serum to neutralise alpha-toxin. So by treating with staphylococcus vaccine, the body can better eliminate alpha toxin from our bodies.

    Alpha toxin actually bores microscopic holes into the membranes of human cells, and these tiny holes in the cell wall allow ions like potassium, magnesium, sodium to flow in and out of the cell. Staphylococcus alpha-toxin forms ionic channels in cells. So perhaps the presence of alpha toxin in CFS patients causes or exacerbates an imbalance in ion concentrations inside the cell. Reserchers have speculated that abnormal ion channel function of cells underlies the symptoms of CFS (see here: Neurological Channelopathy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome).
     
  14. Hip

    Hip Senior Member

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    I wonder if phage therapy might also be a good solution for treating a chronic staphylococcus infection instead? Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that attack bacteria, but have no effect on human cells.
     
  15. Hip

    Hip Senior Member

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    I always assumed that Staphylococcus toxoid vaccine works in CFS/ME by increasing the immune response to Staphylococcus alpha toxin (which it does do). However, I just came cross this very interesting study that found Staphylococcus toxoid has more general immunomodulatory effects (on coxsackievirus B3 in this study):

    Correction of immune response using purified staphylococcal toxoid and likopid in the secondary immunodeficiency induced by coxsackievirus B3

    Thus Staphylococcus toxoid vaccine appears to correct the immunodeficiency caused by coxsackievirus B3 infection. Note that ME/CFS is strongly linked to chronic infection with coxsackievirus B.

    So perhaps the reason Staphylococcus toxoid vaccine is of benefit to people with CFS/ME is because it corrects the immunodeficiency caused by the coxsackievirus B infections often found in ME/CFS, rather than because it boosts the anti-Staphylococcus response of the immune system. Or perhaps it is because of both.
     
    Last edited: Mar 6, 2014
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  16. justy

    justy Senior Member

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    Ive just come across this thread after a search for staph infection.
    I visited Dr Myhill last week for a consultationn and she felt that my nose bleeds and gritty/dry eyes with regular styes and lung infections could all have been caused by staph infection. She prescribed Fucidin ointment for up my nose and on my eyelids (although bizzrely it says on the pack do not put near eyes or internally)
    She mentioned this research into the vaccine and said that the research had been halted due to funding issues and had never been restarted but that it was very positive research. She didnt take a swab to see if it was Staph, but i would have thought that if it was a big issue especially internally some cream isnt going to help much in the long run.
    This research looks really interesting and very promising but i dont know where to go with this now. Any ideas?
     
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  17. Snow Leopard

    Snow Leopard Senior Member

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    Anyone know any further news on this? It sounded interesting.
     
  18. Hip

    Hip Senior Member

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    Here are some excerpts from recent studies on staphylococcus toxoid injections for ME/CFS and fibromyalgia:
     
    jeffrez likes this.
  19. Hip

    Hip Senior Member

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    I just found this page listing three different brands of Staphylococcal toxoid vaccine, namely the brands: Polystafana, Anatoxina Estafilococica and Duplovac. But performing a Google search on these brands, I cannot seem to find any place that is actually selling these vaccines.
     
    Last edited: Mar 6, 2014
  20. Guido den Broeder

    Guido den Broeder *****

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    Nosebleeds in ME can have many causes, including candidiasis and allergies (especially for tobacco fumes).
     
    taniaaust1 and Allyson like this.

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