http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3497293/ Relation between Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Acetylcholine Levels in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients nt J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(10): 12656–12664. Published online 2012 October 3. doi: 10.3390/ijms131012656 PMCID: PMC3497293 Marcella Reale,1,* Federica de Angelis,2 Marta di Nicola,1 Elisabetta Capello,3 Maria di Ioia,4 Giovanna de Luca,4 Alessandra Lugaresi,4 and Ada Maria Tata2,* Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disorder. Since acetylcholine (ACh) is known to participate in the inflammatory response, we investigated the possible relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and acetylcholine levels in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Levels of ACh and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1-β and IL-17 were measured both in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera of 22 RR-MS patients in the relapsing phase and in 17 control subjects affected by other non-neurological diseases (OND). We observed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-17 in both CSF and serum of RR-MS patients compared to control subjects. Moreover, ACh levels were lower in CSF and serum of RR-MS patients compared to levels of control subjects. Although the relationship between high inflammatory cytokine levels and low ACh levels need to be further investigated in the future, our data suggest that IL-1β, and cytokines induced by it, such as IL-17 and ACh, may be involved in the pathogenesis of MS.