the field of gut microbes seems to be rapidly uncovering more info..... Cytokine response of human mononuclear cells induced by intestinal Clostridium species. Anaerobe. 2012 Nov 17; Authors: Tuovinen E, Keto J, Nikkilä J, Mättö J, Lähteenmäki K Abstract Altered composition of intestinal microbiota has been associated with various immunological disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Although Clostridium species are major inhabitants of the intestinal tract, their interaction with the host immunological system is yet poorly characterized. In this study, cytokine responses of human monocytic cell line THP-1 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to six type strains representing common intestinal clostridial species were determined. The strains induced diverse cytokine responses in both THP-1 cells and PBMC. Clostridium perfringens was the most potent inducer of both tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), as compared to Clostridium histolyticum, Clostridium clostridioforme, Clostridium leptum, Clostridium sporosphaeroides and Blautia coccoides. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in PBMC was most efficiently stimulated by C. sporosphaeroides. The same PBMC preparations that responded strongly to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) also responded strongly to bacterial stimulation. This indicates that the level of responsiveness is an individual feature of mononuclear cell preparations, and that the overall cytokine response is composed by a combination of host factors and microbial structures affecting them. This work supports the idea that the composition of the intestinal clostridial population influences immune responses and is likely to play an important role in intestinal homeostasis.