http://www.pnas.org/content/113/35/9922.full Prof Coyne linked to this study on Twitter. One of the comments mentions 'CFS'. There is also an attempt to claim this as a way CBT can help. I have another theory. My ME started with a virus. I ignored it and 'something happened'. The illness took on a qualitatively different form. I'm most affected neurologically and in my immune system, which is notably weaker. My take has always been that by not resting (or returning to activity too soon) the body doesn't have the resources to combat the virus, the immune system is damaged and the virus penetrates into parts of the body it normally wouldn't ie the nervous system. So does this study offer a possible explanation for some of the symptoms: that part of the nervous system is infected, inflamed, damaged in some way (possibly low-grade & so difficult to find evidence for it) and hence the effects throughout the body. Could this study help explain things? Note: I would then point out that while psychotherapies (and learning the London knowledge etc) are shown to bring about changes in the brain, there is no evidence that they can reverse organic damage, so this theory would not open the door to CBT. My illness-fogged brain can't really get into the details of this study. Anyone care to comment? I'd be especially interested in hearing from the biologists, doctors, scientists etc.