What makes this interesting is that the normal relevant and very similar viruses found affecting ME/CFS also affect idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in a very similar manner which demonstrates how all, or a combination of these viruses can impact the immune system in a different ways invoking a completely different disease model. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014 Jun 5. [Epub ahead of print] Prevalence of herpesviruses at onset of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Dossier C1, Sellier-Leclerc AL, Rousseau A, Michel Y, Gautheret-Dejean A, Englender M, Madhi F, Charbit M, Ulinski T, Simon T, Jacqz-Aigrain E, Deschênes G. Author information 1Service de Néphrologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Robert Debré, 48Bd Serurier, Paris, 75935 Cedex 19, France. Abstract BACKGROUND: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is likely a primary immune disorder, but viruses might also be involved in the mechanisms of the disease. Here, we investigate the link between herpesvirus infection and the first manifestation of INS in children. METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, and population-based case-control study called NEPHROVIR included 164 patients, aged 6 months to 15 years old, newly diagnosed with INS, and 233 controls matched for gender, age, and period of sample. The analysis was done on 124 patients and 196 controls. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) DNA prevalence at diagnosis were assessed from whole peripheral blood samples, as well as EBV and CMV viral load and seroprevalence. RESULTS: EBV DNA was significantly more prevalent in cases than in controls (50.8 vs 29.1 %; OR = 2.6; p = 0.0002), with no difference in viral load. A significant difference was also found for CMV (11.3 vs 3.6 %; p = 0.02) and HHV-7 (83 vs 72 %; p = 0.02) DNA prevalence between cases and controls. There were significantly more EBV and CMV recent infections or reactivations based on VCA-IgM and CMV IgM in cases than controls, while there were no differences in IgG seroprevalence. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of positive EBV DNA detection and recent infection or reactivation is higher in children at onset of INS compared to a population matched for age, gender, and time of sampling.