Medical Xpress has an article on new research connecting immune response to phospholipids and T-cells, which were not previously considered active in autoimmune disease. We have generally been looking for antibodies to proteins, but ignored lipids. Likewise we have concentrated on B-cells, ignoring a role for T-cells and dendritic cells, as if immune systems were only collections of disparate parts, not systems. The resulting therapeutic interventions are less than satisfactory. As this says, phospholipids make up so much of cell membranes that they account for half the dry weight of the cell. That is a lot of biological material to ignore, and cell membranes are well-known to play important roles in both health and disease. It is entirely possible problems dismissed as psychological include such neglected immune responses because nerve cells have very high ratios of surface area to volume, and thus membranes play an especially important role in their operation. This dismal state of the art is starting to change, but we are still a long way from treatment options. We are likely not even recognizing many autoimmune diseases.