A recent thread/link i posted on adrenal fatigue mentions that issues occur in the paraventricular nucleus(PVN) that is in the hypothalamus. WHAT THE !! mm i have to read more?? The PVN is said to have multiple sub populations that are activated by a variety of stressful and physiological events. It send s messages to the pituitary where oxytocin and vassopressin are released as well as regulating appetite and autonomic functions in the brain stem and spinal cord. Other info i found say that in chronic stress that PVN has 3 functions- 1)directly controls HPA axis, cortisol/adrenaline response etc 2)neurohypophysial peptides structurally and functionally related to peptide hormones that includes oxytocin and vassopressin 3)projects neurons that regulate autonomic function. So this is only a little research so far but those 3 functions or dysfunctions can explain some symptoms in cfs/me like poor sleep or too much sleep, neuro peptides and autonomic function explain orthostatic intolerance/POTS, hyperadrenergic responses. Also chronically elevated cortisol/adrenaline can cause insulin resistance as well as cause hormonal imbalances. I think when we look at these dysfunctions i think this is how dr jay goldstein was looking into treating cfs/me. The infection/immune side of cfs/me i think keeps the chronic stress going which causes these neurological problems. Also i suppose the hit and run theory is also relevant here to ie in some the infectious cause is gone but its left one with the neurological dysfunction maybe. We can have so many different things out of whack like neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones, immune defiencies, infections etc which is why i dont think there will ever be one cure but treatments need to go after several things. If anyone has any other interesting info or links to PVN, hypothalamus or HPA dysfunction etc and even better how to treat the dam thing, please post. cheers!!!