This might be of interest to somebody out there. Italian authors. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300908413000035 Cobalamin and normal prions: A new horizon for cobalamin neurotrophism Abstract It is known that cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency damages myelin by increasing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreasing epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels in rat central nervous system (CNS), and affects the peripheral nervous system (PNS) morphologically and functionally. It is also known that some polyneuropathies not due to Cbl deficiency are connected with increased TNF-α levels, and that various cytokines (including TNF-α) and growth factors regulate the in vitro synthesis of normal prions (PrPCs). Given that there is extensive evidence that PrPCs play a key role in the maintenance of CNS and PNS myelin, we investigated whether the PrPC octapeptide repeat (OR) region is involved in the pathogenesis of rat Cbl-deficient (Cbl-D) polyneuropathy. After intracerebroventricularly administering antibodies (Abs) against the OR region (OR-Abs) to Cbl-D rats to prevent myelin damage and maximum nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) abnormalities, and PrPCs to otherwise normal rats to reproduce PNS Cbl-D-like lesions, we measured PrPC levels and MNCV of the sciatic and tibial nerves. PrPC and TNF-α levels were increased in sciatic and tibial nerves of Cbl-D and saline-treated rats, and the OR-Abs normalized the myelin ultrastructure, TNF-α levels, and MNCV values of the sciatic and tibial nerves of Cbl-D rats. The same peripheral nerves of the otherwise normal PrPC-treated rats showed typical Cbl-D myelin lesions, significantly increased TNF-α levels, and significantly decreased MNCV values. These findings demonstrate that Cbl deficiency induces excess PrPCs and thereby excess OR regions, which seem to be responsible for the PNS myelin damage, as has recently been found in the case of CNS myelin damage . Furthermore, excess TNF-α is also involved in the pathogenesis of Cbl-D polyneuropathy. In conclusion, we have extended the list of prion diseases by adding one caused by excess PrPCs and the polyneuropathies related to excess TNF-α.