Discussion in 'Other Health News and Research' started by natasa778, Dec 20, 2016.
Brief Definitive Report
Characterization of meningeal type 2 innate lymphocytes and their response to CNS injury
Sachin P. Gadani, View ORCID ProfileIgor Smirnov, View ORCID ProfileAshtyn T. Smith, Christopher C. Overall, Jonathan Kipnis
DOI: 10.1084/jem.20161982 | Published December 19, 2016
The meningeal space is occupied by a diverse repertoire of immune cells. Central nervous system (CNS) injury elicits a rapid immune response that affects neuronal survival and recovery, but the role of meningeal inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, we describe type 2 innate lymphocytes (ILC2s) as a novel cell type resident in the healthy meninges that are activated after CNS injury. ILC2s are present throughout the naive mouse meninges, though are concentrated around the dural sinuses, and have a unique transcriptional profile. After spinal cord injury (SCI), meningeal ILC2s are activated in an IL-33–dependent manner, producing type 2 cytokines. Using RNAseq, we characterized the gene programs that underlie the ILC2 activation state. Finally, addition of wild-type lung-derived ILC2s into the meningeal space of IL-33R−/− animals partially improves recovery after SCI. These data characterize ILC2s as a novel meningeal cell type that responds to SCI and could lead to new therapeutic insights for neuroinflammatory conditions.
Group 2 ILCs
Group 2 ILCs can produce type 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13).
ILC2s (also termed natural helper cells, nuocytes, or innate helper 2 cells ) play the crucial role of secreting type 2 cytokines in response to helminth infection. They have also been implicated in the development of allergic lung inflammation. They express characteristic surface markers and receptors for chemokines, which are involved in distribution of lymphoid cells to specific organ sites. They require IL-7 for their development, which activates two transcription factors (both required by these cells)—RORα and GATA3. ILC2s are critical for primary responses to local Th2 antigens in the lung but are dispensable for responses to systemically delivered Th2 antigens.
I see this research was done on mice. It will be interesting to see whether it's possible to find the same in humans.
Postmortum or when meninges are taken for other purposes.
University of Virginia Health System Press statement (19/12/2016)
Unknown soldiers: UVA discovers powerful defenders of the brain
Excellent article - attention-grabbing headline and clear enough for dummies to understand .
The microbes regulate the innate lymphoid cells:
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