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New type of immune cell discovered in the brain, links with gut

Discussion in 'Other Health News and Research' started by natasa778, Dec 20, 2016.

  1. natasa778

    natasa778 Senior Member

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    http://neurosciencenews.com/immune-cell-gut-brain-5770/

     
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  2. lansbergen

    lansbergen Senior Member

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    http://jem.rupress.org/content/early/2016/12/16/jem.20161982

    Brief Definitive Report
    Characterization of meningeal type 2 innate lymphocytes and their response to CNS injury
    Sachin P. Gadani, View ORCID ProfileIgor Smirnov, View ORCID ProfileAshtyn T. Smith, Christopher C. Overall, Jonathan Kipnis
    DOI: 10.1084/jem.20161982 | Published December 19, 2016

    Abstract
    The meningeal space is occupied by a diverse repertoire of immune cells. Central nervous system (CNS) injury elicits a rapid immune response that affects neuronal survival and recovery, but the role of meningeal inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, we describe type 2 innate lymphocytes (ILC2s) as a novel cell type resident in the healthy meninges that are activated after CNS injury. ILC2s are present throughout the naive mouse meninges, though are concentrated around the dural sinuses, and have a unique transcriptional profile. After spinal cord injury (SCI), meningeal ILC2s are activated in an IL-33–dependent manner, producing type 2 cytokines. Using RNAseq, we characterized the gene programs that underlie the ILC2 activation state. Finally, addition of wild-type lung-derived ILC2s into the meningeal space of IL-33R−/− animals partially improves recovery after SCI. These data characterize ILC2s as a novel meningeal cell type that responds to SCI and could lead to new therapeutic insights for neuroinflammatory conditions.
     
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  3. lansbergen

    lansbergen Senior Member

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innate_lymphoid_cell

    Group 2 ILCs
    Group 2 ILCs can produce type 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13).

    ILC2s (also termed natural helper cells, nuocytes, or innate helper 2 cells[6] ) play the crucial role of secreting type 2 cytokines in response to helminth infection. They have also been implicated in the development of allergic lung inflammation. They express characteristic surface markers and receptors for chemokines, which are involved in distribution of lymphoid cells to specific organ sites. They require IL-7 for their development, which activates two transcription factors (both required by these cells)—RORα and GATA3. ILC2s are critical for primary responses to local Th2 antigens in the lung but are dispensable for responses to systemically delivered Th2 antigens.[7]
     
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  4. roller

    roller wiggle jiggle

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    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innate_lymphoid_cell
     
  5. trishrhymes

    trishrhymes Senior Member

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    I see this research was done on mice. It will be interesting to see whether it's possible to find the same in humans.
     
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  6. lansbergen

    lansbergen Senior Member

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    Postmortum or when meninges are taken for other purposes.
     
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  7. thegodofpleasure

    thegodofpleasure Player in a Greek Tragedy

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    Matlock, Derbyshire, Uk
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  8. TiredSam

    TiredSam The wise nematode hibernates

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    Germany
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  9. jepps

    jepps Senior Member

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    Austria
    The microbes regulate the innate lymphoid cells:
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3495160/
     
    Last edited: Dec 23, 2016
    thegodofpleasure and natasa778 like this.

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