Regarding the Lombardi "Cytokine" study that RRM has been discussing: I originally thought that the wording from the paper (above) was clear that the patients had been selected after they had been diagnosed with XMRV, but actually, on close reading it is ambiguous. After watching the video, I have to say that I agree with RRM that the XMRV patients were discovered/determined after the study had started. However I think there is another interpretation to RRM's and the process could have happened as follows: They originally studied more than 118 patients, and then after they tested patients XMRV positive, they decided to turn it into an XMRV study and dropped the non-XMRV patients from the study to tidy it up. So, if this is what happened, it would not be the case that they selected 118 random patients, who later all tested XMRV positive. But they would have selected any number of patients to research, and then later focused only on the ones that were XMRV positive in order to publish an XMRV-related study.